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Full text of "The Medford historical register"

REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



. . A L LE N C O U ISI T Y PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01746 6092 



GENEALOGY 
974.402 
W465MHR 
1905 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/medfordhistoricav8medf 



T 1 1 E 



Medford Historical 



EGISTER 



Vol. VIII, 1905 




PUBLISHED BY THE 

MEDFORD HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
Medford, Mass. 

- - 



• . 



X 680309 



CONTENTS. 



No. 1. 



Sign of the Royal Oak Tavern 

The Taverns of Medford. John II. Iloope 

Illustration : The Fountain House. 

A Soldier's Letters, 1776 . 

►Strangers in Medford 

New Hampshire Soldiers in Medford 

Samuel Cushing. Elisha B. Curtis 



Page 

Frontispiece 

. . I 

Facing page S 

12 

14 

Eliza M.Gill. 16 

24 



No. 2. 



The Medford House .... 
The Taverns of Medford. (Concluded.) 

John H. Hooper .... 

Church Records, — 1713-1721 
Medford Amicable Singing Society . 
Genealogy of the Francis Family, 1647-1 

Charles S. Young 
Strangers in Medford. (Continued.) 
High Street about 1S20 
Gustavus Fisher Guild 
Errata . . . . . . 



Frofifispiece 



33 



9°3- 



37 

42 

44 
47 
48 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



No. 3. 



Page 



Summer House, Royall Estate, Medford . 



Frontispiece 



49 
62 

64 

75 



The Loyalists of Medford. Grace L. Sargent . 

Strangers in Medford. (Continued.) 

The Whitmores of Medford and some of their 

Descendants. Alice C. Ayres .... 

The West End Schoolhouse, Moses Whitcher Mann . 
Illustration : The First Schoolhouse in West 

Medford ........ Opp. 77 

Records of the Revolutionary War. City Archives 78 
"Full of Years." Helen T. Wild .... 78 

Papers and Addresses, Medford Historical Society, 

1 904-5 



80 



No. 4. 



Types of Buildings in West Medford before 
West Medford in 1S70 . 
Strangers in Medford. (Continued.) 
Captain Isaac Hall .... 
Manning Francis ..... 



I070 Fro ft tisf> iece 

81 
. . 9 s 

IOO 
I03 

The Two Hundred Seventy-fifth Anniversary . 104 



I 






. 












- 






PS : 1 



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1 



: 



! 



S I C N O F T HE R O Y A L O A K T A V E R N 



Is possession of Mr. George T. Porter of Medford. 



The Medford Historical Register. 



Vol. VIII. 



JANUARY, 1905. 



No. 1. 



THE TAVERNS OF MEDFORD. 
By John II. Hooper. 

[Read before the Medford Historical Society, November 21, 190^.] 



iC* 



j/^P *^\ [j^GR many years the most direct route of 
-■/■, .: ;■ ;V^./ .' .A' tL land travel from northern and east- 



.. .; ; 






ern New England to Boston was 
through the town of Medford and over 
Mystic bridge. This large amount of 



I 



travel required more tavern accommo- 
dations than were usual to a place of 
the size and importance of the town of 
Medford. We accordingly find houses 
for the entertainment of man and beast 
located on all of our principal thorough- 
fares, on the roads from Medford to Woburn, from Med- 
ford to Maiden, and on the great road to Chadestown, 
also in the market-place. Medford taverns acquired a 
justly high reputation for their excellent accommoda- 
tions even as early as the year 1686. 

Mr. John Dunton, who visited Medford in that year, 
says: " took Sanctuary in a Public, where there was extra- 
ordinary good Cyder, and tho' I had n't such a Noble 
Treat as at Captain Jenner's, yet with the Cyder and 
such other Entertainment as the House afforded (together 
with my Landlord and my Landlady's good company) 
I made a very pretty thing on 't. By this time the rain 
was over tho' it still remained cloudy : and therefore I 
thought it was best taking Time by the Forelock, and 
go back to Boston while it held up, there being noth- 
ing remarkable to be seen at Meadford, which is but 



2 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. [Jan., 

a small Village consisting of a few Houses." It would 
be of great interest to know at what house Mr. Dunton 
was entertained at the time of his visit to Medford. 
In early colonial days, any person desiring to keep a 
public house of entertainment or to be licensed as an 
innholder, a retailer of strong drinks and other liquors, 
either in-doors or out, was obliged to obtain from the 
selectmen of the town in which he resided a recommend- 
ation that he was a suitable person to be licensed, and 
this recommendation presented to the Court of General 
Sessions of the Peace, was usually favorably acted upon 
by the court and a license granted, and the person so 
licensed was required to furnish a bond with sureties for 
the faithful observance of the law. The form of such 
license was as follows: "A. B. is permitted to sell liquors 
unto such sober-minded neighbors as he shall think meet, 
so as he sell not less than the quantity of a gallon at a 
time to one person, and not in smaller quantities by re- 
tail to the occasioning of drunkenness." The names of 
these licensed persons maybe found in the court records 
and files in the office of the Clerk of Courts of Middlesex 
county. It is to these court records and files that we 
are obliged to look for information concerning the early 
tavern keepers of Medford, and these sources of infor- 
mation are far from being satisfactory. A careful search 
of the records and files fail to show that a public house 
of entertainment was licensed in Medford prior to the 
year 1690, although from the testimony of Mr. Dunton, 
there was an ordinary kept in Medford as early as 16S6. 
In the year 1690 the selectmen of Medford addressed 
the Court of General Sessions of the Peace as follows : 
" The Selectmen of Meadford finding it necessary that 
there be a House of Entertainment kept in Meadford, 
have nominated and appointed Daniel Woodward to 
keep the same and we do present it to this Honored 
Court believing you would grant him a license. Mead- 
ford the 14th, April, 1690, by order of the Selectmen, 
Nath' Wade. John Hall Jim." The court granted Mr. 



1905.] THE TAVERNS OF MEDFORD. o 

Woodward a license. Where his house was located we 
have no means of determining (possibly it was the Willis 
Tavern). He kept a tavern in Medford one year only ; 
the next year (1691) we find him located in Woburn. 
The want of a tavern in the town induced the selectmen 
to again address the court. " Meadford June 17, 1691, 
Whereas we are destitute of a Public House of Enter- 
tainment for strangers ecc. and Mr. Thomas Willis prof- 
fering to supply said defect, the Selectmen of Meadford 
do allow of his proffer accounting him a fitting man for 
that purpose. Nath'. Wade. Stephen Willis. Select- 
men of Meadford." The court granted Mr. Willis a 
license. Again in the year 1692 the selectmen addressed 
the court. "To the Hon. Justices of the Peace at the 
Sessions holden 19th, July instant in Charlestown, by the 
virtue of a warrant from Mr. SamF Phipps, Clerk, dated 
July 7. "92 the Selectmen doe approve of Mr. Thomas 
Willis and judge him a meet person to be licensed to 
retail beer, Ale, Rum, Syder Sic, and to keep a House 
of Public Entertainment for the use of the town and 
strangers, dated iS day of July 1692. from your Worships 
humble servants, Nath\ Wade, Stephen WilMs, John 
Whitmore, Selectmen of Meadford." Mr. Willis was 
again granted a license. 

The next year (1693) we ^ nc ^ Mr. Willis again licensed. 
Where the Willis Tavern was located we can only con- 
jecture by the following: Mr. Willis owned land a short 
distance west of Marble brook, on the north side of the 
way from Medford to Woburn, and at the foot of "Marni 
Simonds' .Hill " (this hill was called in the early days 
of the plantation, Marabels Hill), and as will hereinafter 
appear, this location is the same as that upon which 
stood a tavern named at times Pierce's, Usher's and 
Putnam's Tavern. The evidence to be submitted shows 
conclusively that upon this lot of land stood a house or 
houses that were used a good part of the time for over 
one hundred years as a place of public entertainment. 
When this house was built we have no means of knowing. 



4 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. [Jan.. 

Very likely it was built as early as the year 16S6, and 
may have been the house at which Mr. Dun ton was enter- 
tained in that year. Mr. Willis sold this lot of land with 
the buildings thereon in the year 1714 to Mr. Stephen 
Hall. Mr. Hal) sold the same year to Mr. John Rich- 
ardson, 4th, and Mr. Richardson also sold that same year 
to Messrs'. Joseph and Jabez Sargent. The Messrs. 
Sargent sold in the year 17 17 to Mr. Nathaniel Pierce, 
"taylor and innholder." Who the occupants of this house 
were during these years is by no means certain. The 
records of the court fail to show that any person was 
licensed to keep a public house during the years 1694 
and 1695, although it is probable that licenses were 
granted. In the year 1696 Mr. John Hail was licensed 
to keep a public house, and in the years 1697-8 and 9 
Mr. Stephen Hall was licensed to keep a public house. 
Again in the year 1700, Mr. John Hall was licensed to 
keep a public house. The year 1700 was the last year 
that the court issued licenses to keep public houses of 
entertainment. Thereafter licensees were known as inn- 
holders. In the year 1701 Mr. John Hall, senior, was 
licensed as an innholder. It is assumed that the John 
Hall licensed in the years 1696 and 1700 was Mr. Hall, 
senior. Mr. Hall died in. October, 1701, and from the 
year 1702 to 1706, both inclusive, Mr. John Hall (son of 
John Hall, senior), was granted an innholder's license. 
In the year 1703 Mr. Richard Rookes was also licensed 
as an innholder. Mr. Rookes was at this time owner 
of part of the brick mansion house formerly of Major 
Jonathan Wade, and his tavern was probably near the 
present square (perhaps in the brick mansion). He kept 
a tavern only one year; then from the year 1707 to 17 18, 
both inclusive, Mr. Nathaniel Peirce was licensed as an 
innholder. Mr. Peirce, as has been before stated, bought 
the estate in the. year 17 1.7. He died in the year 1719. 
and in that year and in the years 1720 and 172 1, and 
also in the year 1726, his widow, Mrs. Lydia Peirce, re- 
ceived an nnholder's license. Up to this date I have 



1905.] THE TAVERNS OF MBDFORD. 5 

been particular to give in detail the names of those 
parties who were granted licenses as innholders, etc., for 
the reason that this house appears to have been the first, 
and for many years the only, public house (excepting the 
Rookes 5 house) in the town of Medford, and these names 
appearing in such regular order, leads to the belief that 
they may have been occupants of this house. 

The Peirces were located here without doubt, still 
this evidence, while it seems probable, is by no means 
conclusive, for Mr. John Hall, senior, lived on what is 
now the comer of High and Allston streets. Mr. Stephen 
Hall, his son, probably lived in his father's house, and 
Mr. John Hall, junior, lived on the Woburn road, on or 
near the spot where the house of the late Mr. Albert 
Smith now stands, and they may have done business at 
their residences. Let us now consider what evidence 
there is to authorize us to believe that the house of Mr. 
Willis was the house at which Mr. Dunton was enter- 
tained in the year 16S6. At that date there were but 
three great highways leading through Medford, viz.: the 
highway now known as Grove street, the highway from 
Medford bridge to Woburn (part of High street and all 
of Woburn street) and the Highway to Maiden (Salem 
street). So far as we know the house of Mr. Caleb 
Brooks, and possibly the house of Captain Timothy 
Wheeler, afterwards that of Mr. Ebenezer Prout, and 
still later that of Messrs. John and Stephen Francis, 
were the only houses on the first named highway at that 
date, and there is no evidence that either of those parties 
were ever licensed as tavern keepers. On the highway 
from Medford bridge to Woburn were the two houses 
of Major Jonathan Wade (one of which was probably 
the old Cradock Mansion) and that of Mr. John Brad- 
shaw ; nor is there any evidence that these houses were 
used as taverns. On the highway to Maiden there was 
but a single house, that of Jonathan Tufts near the 
Maiden line, and Mr. Tufts was never licensed as an 
innholder. 



() THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. [Jan., 

All the evidence tends to show the probability that 
the Willis' house was standing in the year 16S6. This 
estate passed from the ownership of the Peirce heirs into 
that of Air. William Willis. Mr. Willis was licensed for 
many years as a retailer of liquors, and there is every 
reason to believe that he occupied this house. In the 
year 1742 ' the estate was sold to Mr. Samuel Reaves. 
Mr. Reaves was never licensed as an innhold'er or retailer, 
and there is no positive evidence that the house was 
used as a tavern during his ownership, Mr. John Brad- 
shaw, in the first part of the year 1750, kept the Admiral 
Vernon Tavern in Charlestown. He removed to Med- 
ford and was licensed as an innholder the latter part of 
that year, and in the years 1751-52-53. He died in the 
year 1753, and his widow, Mercy Bradshaw, was licensed 
for the remainder of the year, and the record reads that 
she occupied the house formerly of Mr. William Willis. 
Mr. Reaves sold in the year 1784 to Mr. Abijah Usher 
of Roxbury. In 1792 Mr. Robert Usher was licensed 
as an innholder and kept this tavern. He was succeeded 
by Messrs. Abijah Usher, Eleazer Usher, Wyman Weston, 
Ebenezer Putnam and others. 

The estate passed from the ownership of Mr. Usher, 
and through many different persons down to the present 
day; it is now in the possession of Mr. F. E. Chandler. 
This estate has been aptly described as u a well chosen 
location for a place of entertainment for tired horses and 
thirsty men, at the foot of that sharp rise in the road 
known as Marm Simonds' Hill." 

A contemporary further described this house as "a 
groggy old hole." 

THE FOUNTAIN TAVERN. 

Under the date of April 29, 1702, Mr. Peter Seccomb 
of Medford, bought of Mr. John Bradstreet, two and one- 
half acres of land bounded northeast and east on the 
road into Charlestown woodiots; southerly on the road 
from Maiden to Charlestown ; westerly upon said Brad- 



1905.] THE TAVERNS OF MEDFQRD. i 

street's other land. Three years later, July 4, 1705, Mr. 
Bradstreet sold to Mr. Seccomb an additional lot con- 
taining one-half an acre, and this lot of land adjoined the 
first on its westerly side and was twenty-eight feet in 
width on the road. These two lots comprised the Foun- 
tain House estate. This house must have been built 
soon after these purchases, for in the year 1713, Mr. 
Seccomb was licensed as an innholder, and no doubt 
was the first landlord of the Fountain Tavern. In 
December of that year he sold his estate to Messrs. 
Francis Leath and son, and the place for the first time 
was called the Fountain Tavern. Mr. Leath, senior, was 
landlord in the year 17 14. During that year the estate 
was deeded back to Mr. Seccomb, who immediately sold 
to Captain Samuel Wade. In the year 17 15, and for 
many years thereafter, Captain Wade was landlord of 
this tavern. In the year 1735 he sold the estate to 
Messrs. Stephen Hall, junior, Stephen and Simon Brad- 
shaw. In the deed the house is spoken of as a dwelling- 
house. In the year 1751 Mr. Simon Bradshaw sold one- 
half of a house to Mr. Stephen Bradshaw, and it was 
described as " at a place formerly called the Fountain." 
By this sale Mr. Stephen Bradshaw came into the 
possession of the whole estate. Mr. Stephen Hall, junior, 
having previously sold his interest in the estate to the 
Bradshaw brothers. Mr. Bradshaw sold in the year 1765 
to Mr. Jonathan Patten. In the year 1775 ^ lr - Thomas 
Bradshaw was licensed as an innholder, and from that 
year until the year 1789, lie kept the Fountain Tavern. 
In the year 1 795 Mr. Patten's widow sold to Mr. Nathaniel 
Hall, from Mr. Hall the estate passed through the owner- 
ship of many different persons, clown to the present day. 
Some of these owning only one-half of the house. There 
is no evidence that this house was used as a tavern from 
the year 1734 until the year 1775, when it was occupied 
by Mr. Bradshaw, although it is very probable that it 
was sometimes used as a place where liquors were sold, 
nor is it likely that it was used as a tavern after Mr. 



8 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD [Jan., 

Bradshaw's day. The late Mr. Rufus Sawyer look down 
the old building and erected on its site the house now 
standing on the easterly corner of Salem and Fountain 
streets. 

THE ROYAL OAK TAVERN. 

This tavern stood upon land purchased of Dr. Oliver 
Noyes by Mr. Benjamin Willis in the year 17 17. The 
estate was described as a house lot near Medford bridge, 
bounded west and northwest on the country road ; north- 
east on a highway laid out from the country road to land 
of Aaron Cleveland; southeast on land of John Hall; 
southwest on the wharf and dock. The wharf referred 
to was that of Major Jonathan Wade, and also that of 
Mr. Matthew Cradock. It was then, as now, at the head 
of navigation on the Mystic river. The dock was on 
the easterly side of the wharf and was sometimes called 
Medford dock. The site of the wharf is now occupied 
by the brick building of Mr. Bigelow and by the old 
skating-rink building. The following extract from the 
printed records of the city of Boston will show the prob- 
ability that at this wharf vessels were cleared for sea at 
an early date. "Aspinwall Notarial Records. 7(6) 1648 
David Sellick a Bill to pay for vessel Susan 3 £ 5 s. 
per hund. & Covt. of Lanclet Baker to finish it & mast 
it & do the joyners work & to beare halfe the vessels 
chardge till cleared belowe the bridge at Mystick. Also 
a Bill of sale of J / 2 said vessell from Lanclet Baker to 
David Selleck:" 

Mr. Willis was granted a license as an innholder in 
the year 1720, and probably built his house soon after 
his purchase. He was sometimes called a shopkeeper. 
He occupied the estate as an innholder until the year 
1730, when he sold the property to Mr. John Bradshaw, 
junior, who was the landlord until the year 1740, when 
he was succeeded by Mrs. Sarah Floyd. In the year 
1748 Mr. Bradshaw sold the estate to Mr. Benjamin 
Floyd. From that date to the year 1759, when it was 



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1905.J THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. 9 

sold io Mr. Hugh Floyd, the house was kept by Mr. 
Benjamin Floyd and others. From the year 1759 to 
1772 Mr. Hugh Floyd kept the tavern the greater part 
of the time. In the latter year he sold to Mr. Ebenezer 
Hills, who kept the house in the year 1773. ^ lr - Hills, 
in the year 1774, sold to Mr. Jonathan Porter. Mr. 
Porter was landlord from the year 1774 to 17S6, both 
inclusive. He took down the old house soon after, and 
built the house now standing on the premises. 

The old swinging sign that hung in front of this tavern 
is dated 1 769. It is in a good state of preservation, except 
that one of the spindles is broken. The emblem and let- 
tering is quite distinct, as indeed they might be, as the 
sign hung exposed to the weather only seventeen years. 
Whether this sign was the original sign of the Royal 
Oak Tavern, or only newly painted in the year 1769, 
cannot be determined. No doubt the emblem on the 
first sign was an oak tree, hence the name "Royal Oak." 
The name of the last landlord of the tavern, Jonathan 
Porter, was evidently painted over the name of his pre- 
decessor. In the upper portion of this sign is a bullet 
hole, and on the side opposite from which the bullet 
entered, a piece of the sign is slivered off. The angle 
of the hole through the sign would seem to indicate that 
the bullet was fired from above the level of the sign, 
unless the sign was swinging at the time the shot was 
fired. There is a tradition that this hole was caused by 
a bullet, shot from the musket of one of the Minute Men 
on the return of the Medford Company from Lexington, 
April 19, 1775. (For further description of the sign see 
illustration.) 

The late Mr. Francis Bigelow was authority for the 
following incident in connection with the house now 
standing on the corner of Riverside avenue and Main 
street. At the time that Mr. Jonathan Porter took down 
the old Royal Oak Tavern and built the house above 
referred to, Mr. Benjamin Hall was confined to his house 
by sickness. Mr. Hall's house was so situated that his 



10 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. [Jan.. 

window overlooked the market-place, and he was much 
interested in watching the progress of the building. All 
at once an idea occurred to him ; calling his man, he told 
him to go and find Mr. Porter and tell him that he had 
better set his house up a good height, as the market- 
place was low, and that in all probability the grade would 
be raised. Mr. Porter heeded the suggestion and set his 
building on a high underpinning. An inspection of the 
cellar wall of the building on the inside will show that 
the grade of the street has been raised all of three feet 
in front of the house. I remember the time when four 
or five steps were necessary to enter the grocery store 
now occupied by Yerxa & Yerxa. 

Mr. Bigelow also related the following story in con- 
nection with the Royal Oak Tavern and its landlord, 
Mr. Jonathan Porter : — 

"During the early years of the War of the Revolution, 
an English vessel was captured by an American priva- 
teer, and the vessel and cargo was brought into the port 
of Boston and sold. A portion of the cargo consisted 
of Rhine wine, and as there was but little if any demand 
for such wine in Boston and vicinity, it was bought by 
Mr. Porter for a trifling sum and brought to Medford 
and stored in the cellar of the Royal Oak Tavern. 

"After the surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga, 
the captured Hessians were sent to Boston and encamped 
in the vicinity. The officers were paroled and allowed 
the liberty of the surrounding country. Some of these 
officers visiting Medford stopped at the Royal Oak Tav- 
ern and were served with some of the captured wine. 
As the home of these prisoners of war was in the valley 
of the Rhine, they were much pleased to find that they 
could obtain their native wine so near their encampment. 
On their return to camp they told of their discovery, 
with the result that all of the captured wine was disposed 
of, to the enjovment of the Hessians and to the profit of 
Mr. Porter." 



1905.] THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. 11 



THE ADMIRAL VERNON TAVERN. 

This tavern stood on the lot of land at the corner of 
Main and Swan streets, opposite the Central Fire Sta- 
tion, upon land purchased by Mr. Aaron Cleveland in 
the year 1717 of the Hon. John Usher. It was a part 
of Gov. Winthrop's Ten Hills Farm. As Mr. Cleveland 
was granted an innholder's license in the year 1720, this 
house must have been built prior to that date. Mr. 
Cleveland was the landlord of this tavern from the year 
1720 to 1738, both inclusive. In the latter year he sold 
the estate to Colonel Isaac Royall, senior. After the 
death of Colonel Royall in the year 1739, his son, Colonel 
Isaac Royall, junior, came into possession of the property. 
From the year 1739 to 1743, both inclusive, the land- 
lords of this tavern were Messrs. John Reed, Abraham 
Skinner, and Captain Samuel Wade. Under date of 
December 26, 1743, Colonel Royall advertised as follows: 
" any person beforehanded so as to lay in a good stock 
of liquors and other necessaries for a Tavern, may meet 
with proper encouragement from Isaac Royall Esq." 
(from Brooks' History of Medf or d) This advertisement 
was answered by Mr. John Bradshaw, who was a few 
years prior to this date the owner and landlord of the 
Royal Oak Tavern. Mr. Bradshaw was landlord of the 
Admiral Vernon from the year 1744 to about the middle 
of the year 1750, when he removed back to Medford. 
He was succeeded by Messrs. William Peirce, William 
Jones, and others. In the year 1768 Mr. Moses Billings 
was licensed as an innholder and took charge of the 
Admiral Vernon, where he remained until the year 1777. 
In the year 1778, Mr. Edward Walker took charge of 
this tavern. He was succeeded by Mr. Benjamin Shaw 
and others. Mr. James Tufts was licensed as an inn- 
holder at the Admiral Vernon in the year 1792, and was 
its landlord from that year to 1801, both inclusive. At 
the close of Mr. Tufts' term as landlord, this house be- 
came a private dwelling, and so continued until it was 



]2 A SOLDIER'S LETTERS, 177s- [Jan., 

destroyed by fire in the year 1850. This house is said 
to have been the headquarters of Colonel John Stark of 
the New Hampshire Regiment, in the year 1775, and is 
supposed to have been the house in which he was chosen 
colonel of the regiment by a hand vote. (Prior to 1754 
this house was in the Town of Charlestown.) 

THE MYSTIC HOUSE. 

This house is now standing on Main street, and in 
late years was a part of the Mystic Trotting Park estate. 
It was built about the year 1847 by Mr. George E. 
Adams, who at that time owned and improved the 
Adams farm, and was used until the establishment of 
Mystic Trotting Park as a private dwelling. It cannot 
properly be classed among the taverns of Medio rd, 
although the Park proprietors were licensed as inn- 
holders. 

mead's tavern. 

In the year 1758, Mr. Thomas Seccomb sold the estate 
upon which the City Hall stands to Mr. Israel Mead. 
Mr. Mead was licensed as an innholder from the year 
1 759 to the year 1762, both inclusive, and no doubt 
kept his tavern in the building then standing on the 
premises. 

[To be Continued.] 



A SOLDIER'S LETTERS, 1775. 

" To the Wider Judith Winn 
in Nottingham West 
in the Province of 
New hampshire in the 
County of hilsborough 
With Care." 

Winter hill March the 7 yer 1776 

Mother these lines com unto you hooping thay will 

find you and all well as J be at prefent through good 

Providence and I want you to send Down fom yarn to 



1905.] A SOLDIER'S LETTERS, 177s- 13 

mend my fockings when you fend my Jacoat we have 
no filing at prefent they have Split five mortars 2 men 
kild. . . . they have intrenched on Dogester hill. . . . 

Camp Winter hill March the 20 yer 1776 
... J would inform you that we have got Bunker 
hill & Boston and we Do fom expect to go into Boston 
foon to be stationed ther foone and J want you mother 
if you can make me fom fharts and fom trowses and and 
a pare of ftockings and if you can fend me down fom 
meet I shall be glad. 

New York April the 29 yer 1776 
. . . this Day we are a going to imbark abord of a 
ship to go to Cobeck and I am very well Please with the 
notion and J want you Mother to get what you want for 
your chomfort and I want you to Live as comfertable for 
what you want and if J Live J will pay for it and we have 
a good alowence and I am very well Contented. 

And fo no more at Present I would Recommend my- 
felf to you and as 

A Dutiful Son 

Nehemiah Winn 

Nehemiah Winn died at Bennington, Vt., of camp 
fever. He was an uncle of Mrs. Sarah B. (Merrill) But- 
ters, daughter of Henry and Bathsheba (Winn), wife of 
Jacob Butters of Medford. 

The above are extracts taken from original letters in 
the possession of Miss Sarah Peasley of Medford, a 
granddaughter of Mrs. Butters. 

In their simple wording these letters give a little of 
the subsequent history of the New Hampshire men who 
made Medford their rendezvous after the uprising of 

J775- 



14 



STRANGERS IN MED FORD. 



[Jan., 















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16 , [Jan.. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IN MEDFORD. 

1775. 

A plain boulder of New Hampshire granite, suitably inscribed, 
marks the resting place of the New Hampshire soldiers who fell in 
the Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775, or died of wounds or 
disease after the battle. 

The monument stands in the old Salem street burying ground, 
and was unveiled there with appropriate ceremonies, October 29, 
1904. It was selected by Hon. Alvin Burleigh of Plymouth, New 
Hampshire, and sent to the Sarah Bradlee Fulton Chapter, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution of this city, under whose direction 
it was lettered, placed in position, and dedicated. 
The stone is inscribed as follows : — 

In Memory of 

New Hampshire Soldiers 

Who Fell at Bunker Hill. 

Buried in this Town 
And Interred in this Spot. 

1849. 

The boulder was the gift of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion of New Hamshire, and came from Plymouth, N. H., near the 
celebrated Indian battle ground of Baker's River. 

Short dedicatory exercises were held at the burial ground, and 
later the company adjourned to the Royall House, Stark's head- 
quarters in 1775, where Mayor Charles S. Baxter greeted the 
assembly in the name of the city, and informal addresses were 
made by guests. 

Miss Eliza M. Gill, through whose efforts the site of the burial 
place was identified, read the historical address which is given 
below. [Editor.] 

Scarcely had the skirmish between the provincials and 
the British soldiers taken place on Lexington Green, 
April 19th, 1775, before relays of messengers had car- 
ried the news throughout New England, and from every 
quarter far and near, from farm and village, valley and 
hillside, men were hurrying toward Boston ; the minute- 
men who had pledged themselves to be ready to start ar 
a moment's warning should any such act as had just oc- 
curred make it necessary for them to defend their rights 
and liberties, even to the shedding of the last drop of 
their blood 



i9°5 



- i 



NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IN MED FORD 17 



From his home to the south came the impetuous 
Israel Putnam. Hearing the news the next morning, as 
in leather frock and apron he was at work in his field, he 
stopped only to arouse the militia, and mounting his 
horse in hot haste he travelled one hundred miles in 
eighteen hours without changing his horse, and reached 
Cambridge 'the next morning before sunrise. 

From his home to the north came John Stark in the 
same heroic, picturesque way, leaving his sawmill as 
Putnam had left the building of a stone wall. As he 
hurried along he told his followers to meet him in Med- 
ford on the banks of the Mystic. Soon after these men 
came thronging in, until nearly two thousand had gath- 
ered here. Some returned home, others came back alter 
arranging their affairs, and some of these joined Massa- 
chusetts regiments, while men of this province joined 
regiments of the New Hampshire line, among the latter 
being a few from this town. 

By three ways these men may have entered Medford ; 
by the road from Maiden, or the Salem highway as it 
was called, this one directly in front of us, or by the 
Stoneham or Woburn roads. The former meeting the 
Salem road a little to the east of us and the Woburn 
road meeting High street to our west, High street and 
the Salem road converging at the market place ; and just 
across the river the tide of travel from these passed over 
the road to Charlestown, the present Main street, and 
thence to Boston. 

Over the Woburn road, probably, came the Exeter 
men, who we know came by way of Haverhill and An- 
dover. Medford thus became a part of the stage whereon 
was enacted the military drama by the Continental Army, 
the grand finale of which was the evacuation of Boston 
by the British. A portion of the left wing was upon 
Winter Hill in the southern part of the town. Men 
from other provinces than New Hampshire were here 
either permanently or for a short time ; a company under 
Captain Sawyer from Wells in the district of Maine, 



18 NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IN MED FORD. [Jan., 

being stationed here eight months. Young Henry 
Dearborn of your state stopped here with his men on 
the night of June 16th, and early the next morning- 
marched to Winter Hill. Benedict Arnold, of less 
pleasant memory, from Connecticut, on September 13th, 
1775, encamped here for the night with a detachment of 
men from Cambridge. In Arnold's famous expedition 
through the wilderness Dearborn accompanied him. 

What an exciting time there must have been in this 
little town until after the evacuation of Boston and the 
withdrawal of the army from Cambridge ! It was on the 
direct route to Cambridge, and scores of men and sol- 
diers were constantly passing through back and forth, 

Over these New Hampshire men John Stark was 
made colonel by a hand vote ( ardent partisans, it is 
said, holding up both hands) in a tavern hall called after- 
wards New Hampshire hall. This was probably in the 
Admiral Vernon Tavern, a few rods over the bridge on 
the east as you go toward Charlestown, the site of which 
will later be pointed out to you. 

In this tavern, the Admiral Vernon, Colonel Stark 
for awhile had his headquarters, and later removed to the 
elegant and roomy mansion of Colonel Isaac Royall, who 
precipitately left his fine estate three days before the 
battle of Lexington. Charles Lee called this mansion 
Hobgoblin Hall and found it so luxurious that Washing- 
ton ordered him to remove from it. 

There are no records telling where these soldiers 
camped, but tradition has it, to which we loyally hold, 
that the place of their encampment was in this immedi- 
ate vicinity. Medford, the "peculiar town "of the early 
days of the plantation was at this period but a small 
town, its inhabitants being not many over nine hundred. 

The lands, in truly English fashion, as even to still 
later times, were, in large holdings controlled by few, and 
at this time without doubt, here in front of us the land 
stretched out far away in green pastures. Here they 
could have pitched their tents or built barracks which 



i<P5-J NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IN MEDFORD, 10 

may have been like those described by Rev. William 
Emerson, an army chaplain, grandfather of Ralph Waldo 
Emerson. He says of the camps about Prospect Hill, 
" They are as different in their form as the owners are in 
their dress, and every tent is a portraiture of the temper 
and taste of the persons who encamp in it. Some are made 
of boards and some of sailcloth ; some partially of one 
and partly of the other. Again, others are made of stone, 
or turf, brick and brush. Some are thrown up in a 
hurry;, others are enviously wrought with doors and 
windows, done with wreathes and withes, in the manner 
of a basket." 

They may have been quartered upon the people of the 
town, and found here as on the way hither, as we are 
told, " hospitable doors opened to them and all things in 
common." Later, there may have been vacant houses 
in which they could take shelter, for Abigail Adams, 
writing under date of " 25 June, 1775," concerning the ex- 
citement attending the battle of Bunker Hill, says, "Med- 
ford people are all removed. Every seaport seems in 
motion." 

The British had ships and floating batteries in the 
Mystic river, which flows through the centre of our city, 
and the following from Mr. Nowell's diary, as given by 
Rev. Charles Brooks in his History of Medford, shows 
the excitement and perturbation the inhabitants were 
subject to and serves to explain the reason why many 
found it preferable to remove from their homes rather 
than remain under conditions so trying, unsafe and dis- 
turbing: "Aug. 6, 1775: Skirmishing up Mistick River. 
Several Soldiers brought over here wounded. The house 
at Penny Ferry, Maldenside burnt." "August 13. — 
Several gondaloes sailed up Mistick River, upon which 
the Provincials and they had a skirmish ; many shots 
exchanged but nothing decisive." One historian speak- 
ing of Charlestown at this period says, " So great were 
the alarm and distress in that thriving suburban village 
of Boston that it was almost deserted. Its population of 



20 NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IN MEDFORD. [Jan.. 

two thousand seven hundred was reduced to about two 
hundred;' 

Within a very short distance of each other several 
taverns opened hospitable doors to all. The reason of so 
small a town being so liberally supplied with hostelries 
was that for more than a century all the travel and team- 
ing from New Hampshire and northeastern Massachusetts 
passed through here on the way to Boston, and quite likely 
here was the last stop before entering the great town. On 
the Salem road was the Fountain Tavern, the site of 
which is but a short distance from here, with its inviting 
•sign of punch pouring from a fountain into a great bowl. 
In the market place near by was the Royal Oak, and 
just over the bridge on the east was the Admiral Vernon 
previously mentioned, while at the West End another 
was favorably located for travelers over the Woburn 
road. 

Young David Osgood, only a few months before in- 
stalled as minister of this town, became chaplain to your 
New Hampshire men. 

Of the Battle of Bunker Hill and the work done by 
the stalwart sons from the province of New Hampshire 
at the rail fence it is not my place to speak. It is your 
history, and of it perhaps you will tell us later today. It 
is generally conceded that we lost possession of the Hill, 
but a soldier of your state whose letter I have had the 
pleasure of reading, wrote home, " Yesterday we took 
Buncher Hill," and modern Miss Boston, when the visit- 
ing Englishman boasted of his countrymen's victory, re- 
plied, "But we've got the Hill ! " 

Of our own purely local history, though it has much 
to interest the stranger, I shall only tell how the woman of 
heroic character whose name our chapter proudly bears, 
helped to dress the wounds and minister to those soldiers 
who were brought here after the battle to an open field near- 
by her home; and further let me call your attention to the 
single monument in this ancient God's Acre, whose in- 
scription gives a brief outline of the life of John Brooks, 



1905.] NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IX MEDFORD. 21 

the Medford bov who was friend of Lafayette and 
Washington and governor of this Commonwealth. We 

o o 

are justly proud of him for the dignity of his character 
and his three-fold able service along military, civic and 
medical lines. You may see his face portrayed in Trum- 
bull's picture of the surrender of Burgoyne in the rotunda 
of the Capitol at Washington. 

Colonel Stark in a letter to Matthew Thornton, who 
was president of a Provincial Convention at Exeter, New 
Hampshire, addressed a letter to him there, two days 
after the battle stating that "Major McClary was killed by 
a cannon-ball and Captain Baldwin and Lieutenant Scott 
by small arms." He further furnished the following: — 

" The whole number, including officers, 

killed and missing, 15 

wounded, 45 

60" 

He also transmitted the account of Reed's losses, at 
the desire of the latter. 

This letter of Stark may have been written at the 
Admiral Vernon Tavern or at the Royali House. 

Major Andrew McClary of Epsom was killed by a 
cannon-ball from a vessel after he had come to Medford 
to procure bandages for the wounded and was returning 
over Charlestown Neck. He was of Colonel Stark's 
regiment and was brought here and "interred with the 
honors of war." Our local historian, Rev. Charles 
Brooks, says, " He lies about fifty or sixty rods north of 
the old burying ground," also that " twenty-five of the 
general's men who had been killed were brought here 
and buried in the field about fifty or sixty rods north 
of Gravelly Bridge." 

The late John Russell found bones there, in 1849, when 
engaged in digging for a cellar and fence at a point 
almost directly in front of us. That the finding was a 
matter of interest is indicated by the fact that instead of 
tossing them aside he took them to his home, where' 



22 NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IN MEDFORD. [Jan., 

many people went to see them. What disposition was 
made of them is told by this record from the report of 
the selectmen, 1848-49: "Gash paid Jacob Brooks for 
burying box of bones from land of N. H. Bishop, sup- 
posed to be the bones of Revolutionary soldiers, $2.50." 
Further evidence of the interest in this matter is found 
in the fact that Jacob Brooks, the town sexton, a few 
years later, when his grandson was assisting him in mow- 
ing the grass here, told the boy the story, and pointed 
out the spot with the admonition, " Remember what 1 
tell you. Some time some one will want to know." 

If the story of the finding of these bones remained in 
people's memory the place where they were re-interred 
seems to have been forgotten. When the committee 
was jointly appointed by the Medford Historical Society 
and Sarah Bradlee-Fulton Chapter, D. A. R., to locate 
the graves of Medford's Revolutionary patriots, soldiers 
and civilians, in order to place S.A.R. markers upon them, 
it was suggested that a marker be placed for these New 
Hampshire men, but the spot could not be identified at 
first. The place was at last happily located by the 
grandson of Mr. Brooks before mentioned, Mr. J. W. 
Vining of this city, who came to this burying ground 
and pointed out the spot, repeating the words his grand- 
father had said to him years before, " Remember what I 
tell you. Some time some one will want to know/' 
Strangely enough the question had never before been 
asked him, and he had never before repeated the story. 

April 19, 1898, the Medford Historical Society placed 
thirty S. A. R. markers upon graves in this city, most of 
them here, and each succeeding Memorial Day since it 
has been the pleasant privilege of this chapter to add to 
each marker an American flag and a laurel wreath. 

In 1900 the stone opposite, which was formerly the 
doorstone of her home on Fulton street (a name given 
in her honor to what had been the Stoneham road ), was 
erected and dedicated to Mrs. Fulton. 

How closely woven have been the interest and history 



1905.] NEW HAMPSHIRE SOLDIERS IN MEDFORD. 23 

of New Hampshire and Massachusetts from the time 
they were British provinces to the time of independent 
statehood! The Rev. Samuel McClintock, Colonels 
James Reed and Enoch Poor were all Massachusetts 
born, adopted citizens of your state. The former was 
born in this very town, an army chaplain, present at the 
battle of Hunker Hill, whose face may be seen in another 
of Trumbull's pictures, that magnificent one that so stirs 
you with its power, " The Battle of Bunker Hill." He 
appears there as the " clergyman in bands." The mili- 
tary service of Reed and Poor you know too well for us 
to tell you. To the latter the S. A. R. of New Jersey 
have this present month dedicated a memorial. 

Captain Isaac Baldwin, one of Stark's men who fell 
in the great battle, was spoken of as an officer of merit, 
and we are pleased to have in our chapter membership 
one of his descendants. 

Colonel Dearborn, Daniel Webster and Henry Wilson 
reversed the conditions of birthplace and citizenship, 
being New Hampshire born and honored citizens in our 
Commonwealth. 

Now, today we join in a common cause with a com- 
mon interest, and gratefully dedicate this boulder, the 
gift of the S. A. R. of New Hampshire to the memory 
of those men who gave up their lives for the sake of a 
noble cause on that never-to-be-forgotten day, on yonder 
hill, June 17th, 1775; and how fitting that Sarah Bracllee- 
Fulton should lie in death opposite those to whom she 
ministered in life, while nearby to both sleeps David 
Osgood who ministered to her spiritual wants and theirs. 

ELIZA M. GILL. 

Note. — It is probable that more men were buried in Medford than the t%venty-five who are 
interred near the memorial boulder. In order to include all such, the names of the twenty-five 
with one_ exception being unknown, the stone was dedicated to the memory of forty-one New 
Hampshire soldiers who fell at Bunker Hill, or died a few days later as the result of wounds 
received there. The names read were taken from the list prepared by Mr. George C. Gilrnore 
of Manchester, New Hampshire, and with the addition of few more are the same as thos'~ in- 
scribed on the Bunker Hill Memorial Tablets, Winthrop Square, Charlestowu.— E. M. G. 



24 . [Jan., 1905. 



SAMUEL CUSH1NG. 

Samuel Gushing, a member of this society, and familiar 
figure in this community for fifty-four years, passed into 
the great beyond from his home on Pleasant street, May 
21, 1904, in his seventy-ninth year. 

He was a native of Cohasset, and came of stock that is 
traced back to Puritan origin. He was connected with 
the heroes of the American Revolution through his 
great-grandfather, Capt. Job Gushing of Cohasset, who 
raised a company and marched from Hingham, and was 
with Washington at Valley Forge during the trying 
winter of 1777. 

After serving the usual apprenticeship Mr. Gushing 
worked in the Navy Yard at Charlestown and in sev- 
eral of the yards on our famous old Ship street, from 
whence the Medford clipper ships, for Californian trade, 
were in such great demand. 

Mr. Gushing was twice married, and by the first union 
had three sons, two of whom survive him, Hiram C. 
Gushing of Pasadena, Gal, and Walter F. Gushing. 
of Medford. 

If, at times, he was abrupt and outspoken and severely 
critical, still he was a good citizen and had qualities to 
offset this peculiarity. In his latter years, and especially 
during his long illness, he became softened in spirit and 
entirely reconciled to the teachings of Scripture, whose 
terms he gladly accepted. 

ELISHA B. CURTIS. 



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The Medford Historical. Register, 



Vol. VIII. 



APRIL, 1905, 



No. 2. 



THE TAVERNS OF MEDFORD. 
By John H. Hooper. 

[Read before the Medford Historical Society, November 21, 1904.] 
Continued from Vol. VIII., No. 1. 



THE BLANCHARD TAVERN. 



This house was built about the year 1752 by Mr. Ben- 
jamin Parker, at one time treasurer of the town of 
Medford. By deed dated June 6, 1752, Mr. Jonathan 



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Tufts sold to Mr. Parker one-half acre of marshland, 
bounded easterly on the county road ; southerly on land 
of Merrow ; westerly on land of said Tufts, and northerly 
on Mystic river. Tin's lot of land is the same as that 



26 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. [April, 

lately occupied by Messrs. Page & Curtin, and also that 
occupied by Mr. John Crowley. The whole property 
has been taken by the Metropolitan Park Commissioners 
for a parkway. The land described as that of Merrow 
is the same as that upon which now stands the paint 
shop in the possession of Mr. Nathaniel Ames. In the 
year 1753 Messrs. Ebenezer Merrow and Thomas Welsh 
were fined "for setting up a fence on the highway be- 
tween said Merrow s dwelling house and Medford river, 
ten rods in length." This fence extended across the 
whole front of the Parker lot, completely shutting him 
off from the highway. It is perhaps not generally known 
that when the inhabitants of the town of Charlestown 
sold the lot of land upon which stands the Central Fire 
Station and the Symmes' buildings, they also sold with 
it "a two pole way leading down to the river above the 
upper side of the bridge, bounded easterly upon the 
Country Road 10^ poles." This sale by the town of 
Charlestown was the foundation of the claim of Mr. 
Merrow, but the two pole way had then become a part 
of the common highway and Mr. Merrow's encroachment 
made him liable to a fine. A part of this passage to the 
river was filled up in the year 18S0 when the present 
stone bridge was built. The estate remained in the 
Parker family until the year 1776, when it was sold to 
Mr. Hezekiah Blanchard, and the house on the lot was 
called a dwelling house. None of the Parker family 
were innholders, and Mr. Blanchard did not take out a 
license as one until the year 1780. From the year 1753 
to 1780, Mr. Blanchard was licensed as a retailer of 
liquors, and the record says that he kept his shop in the 
house of Mr. Benjamin Parker. After the purchase of 
this estate by Mr. Blanchard he improved the building 
by the addition of a dancing hall (the hall was in the 
second story in. the corner next the river), calling it 
Union Hall. When this addition was made it is impos- 
sible to determine. 

In the Columbian Centinal of Boston, September 3, 



1905-] THE TA VBJRNS OF MED FOND. 27 

1796, the following advertisement appears: " Union Hall, 
Medford, is now completely fitted up for the reception 
of large companies, with every convenience to promote 
festivity and happiness, the house is furnished with the 
best of Wine, Porter and other Liquors and every kind 
of refreshment called for can be supplied, Tea, Coffee 
&c. provided either morning or evening and those who 
are fond of an afternoon's excursion for amusement and 
exercise can be accommodated to their minds, the dis- 
tance from Boston is about 5 miles, a distance not so 
long as to occasion fatigue and long enough to promote 
exercise, the commands of the Public are respectfully 
requested and every exertion shall be made to give pleas- 
ure and satisfaction to every guest by their humble serv- 
ant Hezekiah Blanchard, who also manufactures the best 
of Spirits and will sell them by wholesale or retail at 
reasonable prices." 

During the latter days of the occupancy of this build- 
ing as a tavern there was suspended from the ceiling in 
the centre of the dancing hall the model of a full rigged 
man of war (the Chesapeake), and upon its flag was in- 
scribed the dying words of Commodore Lawrence, "Don't 
give up the ship." A sign post with a swinging sign 
and the inscription " Union Hall, H. Blanchard," with 
a foul anchor as its emblem, stood at the southerly end 
of the building. Prior to the year 1804, when Craxlock 
bridge was first provided with a draw, the road and land 
in that vicinity was about three feet lower than at pres- 
ent, and on high courses of the tide it was not uncom- 
mon for people to float around in boats in the road and 
upon these premises. This house was one of the most 
popular houses in the vicinity of Boston, and many 
sleighing and dancing parties were among its guests. It 
was also a common rendezvous for the people of Med- 
ford, and all the current events of the day were discussed 
over a plentiful supply of Blanchard's own manufacture. 
On that part of the land adjoining the road and river 
was a grocery* store and in the rear stood a small distil- 



28 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. [April, 

lery. Mr. Blanchard's last year as landlord was in the 
year 1S00. (He died in the year 1803.) He was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Hezekiah Blanchard, junior. Heze- 
kiah, junior, died in the year 1818 and was succeeded 
by Messrs. Isaac W. Blanchard, Samuel Blanchard, 
and others. The Blanchard heirs sold the estate in 
the year' 1833 to Mr. Joseph James, who in company 
with Mr. Milton James, established a lumber yard on 
the premises. A portion of the old tavern building was 
sold to Mr. Jacob Butters, who removed it to another 
location on Main street and fitted it up into a double 
dwelling house; it is now standing opposite the head 
of Mystic avenue, and is numbered 133 and 135 Main 
street. The old tavern was the headquarters of the 
Medford and Boston Stage Coach, Samuel Blanchard, 
proprietor. 

THE MEDFORD HOUSE. 

This house stands upon land purchased in the year 
1803 by Mr. Andrew Blanchard of Mr. Ebenezer Hall, 
2d. It was part of a tract of land purchased by Colonel 
Royall of Mr. Jonathan Tufts in the year 1755, and 
devised by him to his daughter, Herriot Pepperell, and 
by her sold to Mr. Hall in the year 1800. The house 
was probably built by Mr. Blanchard in the year 1804. 
It was opened as a hotel in the year 1805, and was known 
as the Medford Hotel. Its first landlord was Mr. John 
Jaquith. He was succeeded by his widow, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Jaquith, and by Messrs. Seth Mayo, Rufus Frost, 
Samuel Kendall, Moses Jaquith, A. Proctor, and others. 
On May 11, 1835,3 company of thirty-five gentlemen 
and one lady formed an association known by name of 
the Medford Hotel Association, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing certain lands and tenements situated in Medford, 
to be used and occupied as a hotel. The capital stock 
consisted of one hundred eighty-three shares, par value 
per share, one hundred dollars. 



r 905.3 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. 29 





SHAREHOLDERS. 




No 


. of Shares. 


No. of Shares. 


Jonathan Brooks, 




5 


Thatcher Magoun, 


10 


Samuel Train, 




10 


Nathaniel II. Bishop, 


10 


Marcus Whitney, 




10 


Andrew Blanchard, Jr., 


5 


Luther Angier, 




10 


Samuel Kidder, 


5 


Timothy Cotting, 




5 


Turell Tufts, 


10 


Galen James, 




5 


Isaac Sprague, 


5 


John Angier, 




5 


Francis R. Bigelow, 


5 


David Kimball, 




5 


John W. Mulliken, 


5 


Thatcher Magoun, Jr. 


1 


5 


Joseph and Milton James, 


5 


Henry Porter, 




5 


Jonathan Porter, 


5 


Joseph Manning, Jr., 




5 


Waterman & Ewell, 


2 


George W. Porter, 




5 


Nathan Sawyer, 


2 


George L. Stearns, 




5 


Isaac and James Wellington, 2 


Thomas R. Peck, 




5 


Jotham Stetson, 


3 


S. P. Heywood, • 




5 


Isaac H. Haskins, 


2 


Dudley Hall, 




5 


James O. Curtis, 


2 


B. M. Clark, 






Abner Bartlett, 


1 


Thomas II. Floyd, 




3 


Abigail Whitney, 


5 


Under this association, 


, which had for its main pur 


pose 


the keeping of a 


tempe 


ranee house, the building 


was 



enlarged. In the upper story of the ell was a large and 
commodious dance hall. The first landlord under this 
new arrangement was Mr. Marcus Whitney, and he was 
succeeded by Messrs. David Carleton and James Bride. 
The movement for the keeping of a temperance house 
failed, and in the year 1845 the estate was sold to Mr. 
Augustus Baker, who kept the house for many years. 
He was succeeded by Messrs. A. J. Emerson, Peter A. 
Garvey, Daniel K. Emerson, Charles H. Day and J. F. 
Folsom. The house is at the present time under the 
management of F. M. Viles, and is known as the Medford 
Inn. 

THE COLUMBIA HOUSE. 

On Main street, nearly opposite Royal street, stood a 
house called the. Columbia House. It was first kept as 
a public house by Mr. Augustus Baker, who afterwards 
was landlord of the Medford House. At the time Mr. 
Baker purchased the Medford House, Mr. James Bride 



30 THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. [April, 

was its landlord. When Mr. Baker look possession of 
that house, Mr. Bride removed to the Columbia House, 
vacated by Mr. Baker. The Columbia House was after- 
wards used as a private dwelling. A few years ago it 
was removed to a court, leading from Mystic avenue, 
and after being cut into two parts, was remodeled, and 
these are now used as tenement houses. 



SIMPSON S HOTEL. 

The brick house standing on the north side of High 
street was built in the year 1756, by Mr. Thomas Sec- 
comb, upon land purchased by Mr. Seccomb of Philip 
Carteret, the deed being dated May 20, 1755. It was 
formerly known as the Seccomb House. It was occupied 
for many years by Mr. David Simpson, and kept as a 
public house, and was then known as Simpson's Hotel. 
(Mr. Simpson opened this house as a public house about 
the year 1866.) It is now occupied by several depart- 
ments of the city of Medford. 



THE CANAL HOUSE. 

This house stood upon the banks of the Middlesex 
Canal and at the northwest corner of Boston avenue and 
Arlington street. It was opened and chiefly used as a 
stopping place for persons employed in navigating the 
canal. Among its landlords were Messrs. Bowen Cre- 
hore, Darius Wait, Joseph Wyatt and Jeremiah Gil son, 
This house has been removed from its original location, 
remodeled into tenement houses, and these are now 
located at the foot of Canal street. 

There were many persons licensed as innholders from 
the year 1690 to the year 1831, whose places of business 
cannot be located. It is hardly fair, however, to speak 
of such places as taverns, for they were only saloons for 
the sale of liquors, and the same may also be said of 
some of those previously mentioned. 



>y°5-] 



THE TAVERNS OF MED FORD. 



31 



The following is a list of persons licensed as inn- 
holders in Medford, from the year 1690 to the year 1831, 
both inclusive : — 



Adams, Benjamin, 1756. 
Bascom, Henry L., 1822, 1S23. 
Billings, Mo?es, 176S, 1769, 1770, 

1771, 1772, 1773. 1774, 1775, 1776, 

1777. 
Blanchard, Hezekiah, 17S0, 17S1, 

1782,1783,1784, 1785,1786, 1787, 

17SS, 17S9, 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 

i794> *795> *79 6 > *797^ 179S, 1799, 
1S00. 

Blanchard, Hezekiah, jr., 1801, 1S02, 

1S03. 
Blanchard, Hezekiah,* 1S04. 1805, 

1S06, 1S07, 1S0S, 1809, 1 810, 181 1, 

1S12, 1S13. 1S14, 1S15, iS 16, 1S17, 

181S. 
Blanchard, Isaac W., 1S19, 1S20. 

Blanchard, Samuel, 1829, 1S30, 1831. 

Bossee, Thomas, 17S1. 

Bradshaw, John, Jr., f 1730, 1731 , 1732, 

i/33' i*734> *735- 
Bradshaw, John, 1736, 1737, 1 73S, 

1739, 1740, 1750 (part of the year), 

1 75 l '> J 7S 2 > x 753- 
Bradshaw, Mercy, 1753, 1 755. 
Bradshaw, Thomas, 1775, 1776, 1777, 

I77 8 - *779i x 75o. 17S1, 17S2, 17S3, 

1784, 17S5, 17S6, 17S7, 17S3, 1789, 
Brooks, James Vv\, 1824, 1825. 
Brooks, Thomas, 1785, 1786. 17S7. 
Crehore, Bowen, 1S17, 1818, 1S19, 

1820. 
Curtis, Eliphaz, 1807. 
Curtis, Lebeus, 1811. 
Dexter, George B., 1826, 1827, 182S. 
Dodge, William, 1769. 
Doggett, Isaac, 1754. 
Floyd, Hugh, 1754, 1755, 1759, 1760, 

1761, 1762, 1763, 1764, 1.765, 176G, 

1767, 1770, 1771, 1772." 
Floyd, Sarah, 174 1, 1742, 17.43, x 744> 

x 745> i/4^ ! 747: i74 8 - 
Francis, John, Jr., 1 7 17, 1718, 1719, 

1720, 172 1 , 1726. 



Francis, Capt. Thomas, 17S3, 17S4. 

Frost, Rufus, 1S11. 

Goldthwait, Benjamin, 1760. 

Goldthwait, Charity, 1761. 

Hall, John, Jr., 1702, 1703, 1704, 1705, 

1706. 
Hall, John, Sr., 1696, 1700, 1701. 
Hall, Stephen, 1697, 169S, 1699. 

Hawkes, Jonathan, 1755, 1756, 1757, 

1758. 
Hills, Ebenezer, 1773. 
Hyde, James, 1S1S, 1S19, 1S20. 
Jaquith, Elizabeth, 1S0S, 1S09. 
Jaquitb, John, 1805, 1S06. 
Jaquith, Moses, 1S26, 1827. 
Johnson, Josiah, 1S05. 1S06, 1S07, 

1S0S, 1809, 1810. 
Jones, William, 1762, 1763, 1764. 1765, 

1766, 1767. 
Kendall, Samuel, 1S2S, 1S29, 1830, 

1831. 
Kimball. John, 1754. 
King, Isaiah, 1820. 
Lathe, Francis, 1714. 
Lealand, Abner, 175S. 1759. 
Mayo, Seth, 1S12, 18/3. 1814, 1815, 

* 1S16, 1817, 1818. 
Mayo, Seth and Rufus Frost, 1810. 
Mead, Israel, 1759, 1760, 1761, 1762, 

1763. 
Moore, Augustus, 176S. 
Peirce, Lydia, 1719, 1720, 1721. 1726. 
Peirce, Nathaniel, 1707, 170S, 1709, 

1710, 1711, 1712, 1713, 1714, 1715, 

1716, 1717, 1718. 
Perham, Daniel, 1S12, 1S13. 
Porter, Jonathan, 1774, 1775;, 177°, 

I777i i>7S, 1779? J 7So, 17S1, 1782. 

*7 8 3? I 7 8 4> 178S1 '7 S ^- 
Putnam, Ebenezer. 1S13, 1S14, iSiv 

1816, 1S17, 1818, 1S21. 
Rogers, Philip P., 1S27. 
Rookes, Richard, 1703. 



♦See Hezekiah Blanchard, Jr. 



tjohn Bradshaw and John, Jr. one and the same person. 



32 CHURCH RECORDS,— 1713-1721. [April, 

Scolly, Benjamin, 1738. Usher, Robert, 1792, 1793. 

Seccomb, Peter, 1713, 1 7 1 7. Wade, Samuel, 1715, 1716, 1 7 1 7. 171S, 

Shaw, Benjamin, 17S0. J 7 1( > *72 2 » 1723. *7 2 4- 

Skinner, Jacob, 1S21, 1S22, 1S23. Wait > Darius, 1813, 1S14. 

Stearns, Charles, 1S24, 1S25. Walker, Edward, 177S, 1779. 

Stevens, Thomas, 1S21. Weston, Wyman, 1799, 1S00, iSoi, 



Taylor, Timothy, 1755, 1756, 1757. 
Turner, John, ^1749, 1750, 1751, 1752, 
1753 



1S02, 1S03, 1S04, 1S05. 
Whitmore, Francis, 1759. 
Willis, Benjamin, 1720, 1721, 17 



Tufts, James, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, J7J3. W. WW^ 1727, 172S, 

I795i 179^5 i797r i79 s « *799> lSoo ? J " i5 ' 

1S01. Willis, Thomas, 1691, 1692, 1693. 

Usher, Abijah, 1795, 1796, 1797. Woodward, Daniel, 1690. 

Ubher, Eleazer, 179S, 1799. Wjatt, Samuel, 1819, 1820. 



CHURCH RECORDS, — 1713-1721. 

The following list comprises the persons who were 
admitted to full communion in the church at Meclford 
during the ministry of Rev. Aaron Porter. 

In the church records, under date of November iS, 
175 1, Mr. Turell wrote that at that time only John 
Willis, Benjamin Teal, and Benjamin Parker "remained" 



as members. 



1713, June 14, Stephen Francis, sen. 

Stephen Willis, jun. 

Isaac Farewell. Elizabeth Farewell, -wife of Isaac. 

Rebeccah, wife of William Willis. 

1714, June 6, Susannah Porter, wife to Aaron Porter. 
Nov. 21, John Tufts, sen. 

1715, Jan. 2, Mary Leatherby, wife to Stephen Leatherby. 
Feb. 13, Peter Wait. Sarah Wait, wife to Peter Wait. 

Hannah Sargent, wife to Joseph Sargent. 
May 8, Hannah Seccomb, wife to Peter Seccomb. 
June 12, Hannah Larrence. 

1716, April, John Willis. 

Elizabeth Alberry, wife to John Alberry. 
May 13, Ephraim Leatherby (dismissed). 

1718, Mar. 16, Benjaminn Teal. Anna Teal, wife to Benjamin Teal. 
April 27, Benjamin Parker. 

Abigail Patten, wife to William Patten, 
July 20, Rebeccah Willis, wife to Jno. Willis. 
Oct. 12, Elizabeth Francis, wife to Jno. Francis. 

Mary Parker, wife to Benjamin Parker. 

17 19, May 10, Jonathan Tufts, jun. 

Sarah Tufts, wife to Jonathan Tufts. 
1721, Oct. 15, John Grattan. 



1905.] MEDFORD AMICABLE SINGING SOCIETY. 33 

MEDFORD AMICABLE SINGING SOCIETY. 

[Document on file in office of City Clerk of Medford, Massachusetts.] 

We, the subscribers hereunto being desirous of better 
informing ourselves in the art of singing, do agree to 
form ourselves into a society for that purpose, to be 
known by the name of the Medford Amicable Singing 
Society, and we further agree to observe and be governed 
by the following articles : — 

Art. ist. There shall be a chorister chosen by the 
society, whoes duty it shall be to lead and instruct the 
said society- in the art of singing to the best of his abili- 
ties, and we on our part agree to be under the said 
Chorister's direction in all our performances of musick, 
with an intent to make ourselves as respectable as posa- 
ble in the object of our undertaking. 

Art. 2D. There shall be three meetings in each 
week of said society for four weeks from Sunday next, to 
be held on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday evenings, 
and we each of us agree to attend such meetings punctu- 
ally unless some unforseen circumstance should take 
place which shall make such meeting very inconveniant 
for us, and we further agree to do every thing in our 
power to unite, encourage, cherish, strengthen & har- 
monize said society, and promote the intentions of the 
institution — and after the expiration of the four weeks, 
we will meet at such times as a majority of the society 
shall from time to time agree upon. 

Art. 3D. We each of us agree to set in the singing 
seats in the Medford meeting house every Sunday for 
one year from the date of these articles, when we can 
conveniently attend public worship, unlefs on particular 
occasions it shall be excusable to set elsewhere in said 
meeting house, provided however, the expenses which 
will necessarily arise in carrying the intentions of said 
society into effect, can be defrayed without any expense 
to any individual of said society other than their time. 



' 



34 MBDFORD AMICABLE SINGING SOCIETY. [April, 

Art. 4th. there shall be a standing committee chosen 
for the purpose of selecting such tunes as the society 
will perform in the meeting house generally, also for the 
purpose of selecting the tunes to be sung each Sunday. 

Art. 5'rn. There shall be a committee chosen to 
wait on Doct r Osgood to request him to favour the 
society with the Psalms & Hymns he intends reading 
on Sundays, in each week preceeding sunday as early in 
the week as he can with convenience. 

Art. 6th. There shall be a committee chosen for 
the purpose of giving invitations to persons who are 
singers, who may hereafter come into town to reside, 
that the said committee may judge will be advantagious 
to the said society, and it is to be understood to be the 
wish of said society that no singer now belonging or 
living in Medford shall be invited into this society by 
any member thereof other than what may be expressly 
authorized by these articles — but notwithstanding this 
article, it is not intended to prevent any member from 
asking his friend into the society occasionally as they 
may have chance to call on them, provided they do not 
belong in Town. 

Art. 7.T-H. On a proposition being made to admit 
into the society any singer belonging to town, such prop- 
osition having the support of two thirds of the members 
of said society present at any of their stated meetings, 
the person so proposed and supported, shall be notified 
by the secratary immediately of the vote of invitation 
stating also, if they accept the invitation, where they are 
requested to meet the society. 

Art. 8th. It is requested that in case any circum- 
stance should happen that any member should wish to 
leave the society, that he would make his request known 
to the secratary of said society that they may honourably 
vote him a discharge. 

Art. 9th. Any member conducting himself improp- 
erly in the Judgment of the society it shall be in the 
power of the majority to excommunicate him, and he, 



1905.J MEDFORD AMICABLE SINGING SOCIETY. 35 

when so excommunicated by a vote of the majority, shall 
not be admitted into the society. 

Art. 10. There shall be a secratary chosen whose 
duty it shall be to keep in a Book, to be kept for the use 
of the society, a record of the proceedings of the society, 
and make a record of each members name belonging to 
the society, and to draw all orders on the Treasurer, 
which the said society may direct. 

Art. 11. There shall be a treasurer chosen whose 
duty it shall be to receive all monies paid for the use of 
the society, and to pay over the same to the order of the 
secratary as aforesaid, also to keep a record of all monies 
received as aforesaid also of all monies paid out and for 
what paid for. 

Art. 12. The foregoing articles shall be subject to 
revision at all times when two thirds of the members of 
said society shall think proper. \ 6913303 

Accepted March 15, 18 15. 

Gershom Tufts James T. Floyd, Jr. 

Gabriel Fullerton Jon a Harrington 

Henry Withington James Francis, 2d. 

Ephraim Bailey Andrew Perkins 

James T. Floyd Samuel D. Hadley 

James Tufts Seth Mayo 

Patrick Roach Darius Wait 

Flias Tufts Benjamin Floyd, 3d. 

Sam 1 Phelps Dexter Blodget 
Henry Todd 

Thomas Calf ladies. 

Edward Bradbury Charity Fullerton 

William Butters Anna Blodget 

Daniel Copland Rebecca Floyd 

The forgoing is a copy of the constitution M. A. Sing- 
ing society, with the names subscribed, and the following 
is a list of names who have had billets of invitation to Join 
the society by the unanimous vote of the said society, 
who have accepted the invitation as we the subscribers 
understand. Namely 



36 



MEDFORD AMICABLE SINGING SOCIETY. [April, 



Benjamin Pratt, Jr 
John Kimball 
Nath 1 Fessenden 
James W. Brooks 
John Phipps 
Mr. Fisk 
Galen James 
Thos. Floyd 
Levi Frost 
George Brown 
Noah Kimball 



LADIES. 

Miss Perkins 
E ma line Wyman 
Sally Baldwin 
Sally Gleason 
Esther W. Merrill 
Tryphena Tufts 
Nancy Clark 
Mariah Butterfield 
Esther Tufts 
Eliza Withington 
Almyra Turner 
S Turner 

making in all forty nine 
12 Tenor 
22 Bass 
15 Trible 



49 

To the selectmen of the Town of Medford 

Gentlemen — 
We the subscribers, a committee chosen from the 
within named M. A. S. society for the purpose of mak- 
ing a statement, of the intentions and situation of said 
society as well as a statement of the assistance they 
think they must have to enable them to carry their in- 
tentions into execution ; beg leave to state to you gen- 
tlemen, that the society think that, in case they carry 
into effect their intentions agreeing with the principles 
of the foregoing constitution, they will want at least fifty 
dollars, and it is further calculated that it is actually 
necessary to have twenty five dollars immediately, as it- 
is found necessary under existing circumstances to pro- 
cure one and a half dozen of singing books of the eleventh 
Edition of the village harmony* which probably will cost 
fifteen dollars, and that we want room & lights, beside 
other expences which will occur unavoidably which we 
think must certainly take the remaining ten dollars so 
that sum of twenty five dollars will probably satisfy for 
the expenses of said society till they may want to meet 



1905.] GENEALOGY OF THE FRANCIS FAMILY. 37 

for practice next fall as existing circumstances of late 
has made the formation of the said society very deficult, 
it must be believed that the undertakers and supporters 
in pursuing and establishing the principles and organiz- 
ing the said society thus far, have had a task which 
ought to excuse them from all further trouble in obtain- 
ing the assistance requested: other than making it 
known to the citizens of Medford aforesaid. We there- 
fore with confidence, rest assured that the gentlemen 
composing the board of selectmen to whom we submit 
the above statements will leave nothing undone that 
they with propriety can do to procure the amount of the 
said society's request, and in time to facilitate their 
undertaking. 

Medford, March 20th 181-5. 
Gentlemen, with due respect we remain your ob* Serv ts 

tp v» \ tt rr>xr ") Medford Amicable 

GERSHOM TUFTS \ Sr "f! n - f"***** 
) Committee* 



GENEALOGY OF THE FRANCIS FAMILY, 16454903. 

Contributed by Charles S. Young, Newton Centre, Mass. 

With additions from an annotated copy of the genealogy, by Wyman, from 
the library of Wra. H. Whitmore of Boston. 

r Richard Francis of Cambridge ; m. Alice — — ; b. 1609; 

children : — 
1-2 Stephen; b, Feb. 7, 1645. 

3 Sarah; b. Dec. 4, 1646; m. John Squire. 

4 John; b. Jan. 4, 1650; m. Lydia Cooper. 

Richard d. March 24, 1687, aged about Si. This would 
make the date of his birth about 1606. Consequently 
he must have come from some foreign country previous 
to 1645, the date of the birth of his first child. 

1-2 Stephen Francis; m. Hannah Hall, daughter of Thomas 
of Cambridge, Dec. 27, 1670, who d. April 2, 16S3. 
He then married Hannah Dickson, Sept. 16, 1683; 
d. Sept. 24, 1719; children: — 
2-5 Hannah; b. Sept. 28, 167 1 ; d. June 17, 1677. 
5 1- Lydia ; m. Nathaniel Peirce. 



38 GENEALOGY OF THE FRANCIS FAMILY. [April, 

6 Stephen; b. Aug. 15, 1674. 

7 Hannah; b. June 18, 1677; d. young. 

8 Hannah; b. April 7, 1680. 

9 John (called, Jr., 1723) ; m. Elizabeth Frost, daughter of 

John of Cambridge, Sept. 13, 1705. 

1-4 John Francis (called John, Sr., 1722), who d. Jan. 3, 
172S; m. Lydia Cooper, Jan. 5, 16SS, who d. Aug. 
24, 1725, aged 63 years; children: — - 
4-9^ John; b. Oct. 10, 16S8; d. young. 

10 John; b. Feb. 17, 1690. 

11 Stephen; b. Nov. 2, 1691. 

12 Nathaniel; b. about 1692; named in divis. of his father's 

estate. 

13 Samuel: b. Jan. 17, 1696. 

14 Anna; b. Nov. 2, 1697; m. Benj. Dana July 23, 1724. 

15 Joseph: b. Jan. 5, 1700; m. Elizabeth Harris. 

16 Ebenezer ; b. Oct. 30, 1701 ; d. March 3. 1702. 

17 Lydia; b. April 20, 1703; m. Joseph Tufts, Jan. 2, 1727. 
iS Ebenezer; b. March 25, 170S; d. Feb. 2, 1727. 

4-10 John Francis (called John 3d, 1722); m. Dorothy 



She died Sept. 25, 1737, aged 33; lie d. Aug. 31, 1750; 

children : — 
io-iStV Mary; b. Jan. 26, 1732, died early. 

iStf John, who m. Jane Teel (widow of Samuel) ; he d. 17S6; 

his wife d. 1800. 
1 83 Dorothy, who m. Ephraim Roberts of Gloucester prior 

to 1752. 

4-1 1 Stephen Francis, blacksmith, is mentioned in his brother 
Ebenezer's will (iS). Stephen is the one who m. 
Love, widow of Josiah Wyman of Woburn, July 14, 
1740. He died July 13, 1 77 1 . His wife d. June 22, 
1767 ; children : — 
1 1 — 19 Stephen ; b. March 7, 1 741 ; d. June 26, 1749. 
Seth ; b. Jan. 14, 1744; d. Oct. 31, 1791. 

4-12 Nathaniel Francis; m. Sarah Whitmore, May 16, 1723, 
and 2d, Ann Cutter, widow of Samuel, March 31, 1743. 
He d. Sept. 2, 1764; children: — 
12-21 Nathaniel; b. Jan. 6, 1732. 

22 Benjamin; b. Nov. 11, 1 734- 

23 Richard; b. Jan. 2, 1736. (Soldier, 1757.) 
2 3i William; bap. Feb. 6, 1737. 

4-13 Samuel Francis; m. Mary , who died April 21, 1774. 

Fie d. Sept. 29, 1775; children: — 



1905.] GENEALOGY OF THE FRANCIS FAMILY. 39 

13-rt Mary; m. William Tufts. 
30 John ; m. Deborah. f 

b Lvd a ; m. Blunt. 

c Rebecca; m. 1st, Ichabod Tufts; 2d, Aaron Blanchard. 

24 Anna; b. Nov. 2S, 1726; m. Josiah Dixon, June 16, 

174S. She was burned to death May 19, 1 7 7 1 . 

25 Samuel; b. Jan., 172S; d. Oct. 15, 1775. 

26 Sarah; bap. Oct. 26, 1729: b. in Charlestown Oct. 11, 

1729; m. Josiah Smith of Lexington, Nov. 15, 1750; 
d. April 27, 1757. 

4-15 Joseph Francis; m. Elizabeth Harris in Bradford, Dec. 

iS, 1735. He died Feb. 1, 1749, and his widow d. 
Dec. 2, 1 7S6 ; children: — 
15—26^ Elizabeth" ; b. Nov. 7, 1736 (single 1763 ; school mistress). 

27 Lydia; b. Dec. 12, 1737 (single 1763, of Boston). 

28 Joseph; b. July 12, 1741 ; m. Elizabeth Usher, May 15, 

1764. He served at Prospect Hill during the Revolution. 

13-30 John Francis, Jun., who d. April 2, 1776, had by wife 
Deboraht : — 
30-31 Manning; b. Nov. 20, 174S; d. Sept. 6, 1749. 

32 Phebe; b. May 25, 1753. 

33 Deborah; b. April 21, 1755; m. John Lagood, Feb. 9, 



755' 



34 Sarah; b. May 22, 1757. 

35 John; b. April 6, 1760. 

36 David; b. June 23, 1764. 

37 Mary; b. May, 1767. 

38 Ebexezer had by his wife, Rachel, widow of Ebenezer 

Tufts, whom he m. Nov. 15, 1733, 
3S-39 Susanna; b. Nov. 28, 1734; m. Sam'l Cutter, April 28, 

i757« 

40 Abigail; b. Oct., 1736. 

41 Lucy; b. March, 1 739. 

42 Sarah; b. June 6, 1 74 r ; m. Thomas Wyer of Charles- 

town, March 8, 1756. 
4.3 Ebenezer; b. Dec. 22, 1744. 

44 William ; b. April 20, 1 746. 

45 Thomas; b. July 15, 1748; m. Susanna Hill, July 11, 

1 77 1, in Cambridge. 

46 Aaron; b. Feb. 16, 1751. 

47 John; b. Sept. 28, 1753. 
Ebenezer; d. July 16, 1774. 

•Known in Medford as "Ma'am Betty; " d. in Mediord Jan. 25, 1829. [Ed.] fCarter [Ed.]. 



40 GENEALOGY OF TUB FRAXCIS FAMILY. [April, 

12-21 Nathaniel, Jr.; m. Phebe Frost, daughter of Thomas, of 
Charlestown, April 12, 1751 ; children: — 
21-4S Nathaniel; b. Oct. 13, 1752. 

49 Jonathan; b. Jan. 27, 1755. 

50 Stephen; b. July 25, 1757. 

51 Joseph; b. Aug. 8, 1759. 

52 Phebe; b. Sept. 13, 176 1. 

53 Thomas; b. May 3, 1763. 

54 Caleb; b. March 8, 1766. 

55 Joshua; b. July, 1767; d. in Boston, Feb., 1S12. 

12-22 Benjamin Francis; m. 1st, Lydia Converse (published in 
Charlestown, March 11, 1757), who d. Jan., 17SS; 2d, 
Sarah Hall, Oct. 20, 176S, and d. June 5, 1 79S ; 
children : — 
22-56 Benjamin; b. Sept. 6, 1759; d. in Baltimore. 

57 James. 

58 William ; lived in Newburyport. 

59 Convers ; b. July 14, 1766; lived in "Wayland. 

60 Ebenezer. 

61 Simon. 

. 62 Nathaniel. 

63 Stephen. 

64 Sarah; m. John Bound of Middletown. 
6$ Lydia ; m. Job. Wyeth of Cambridge. 

11-23 Richard Francis, by his wife, Hannah Winship, daugh- 
ter of Samuel of Lexington, whom he m. March 20, 
1760, had : — 
23-66 Richard; b. Dec. 16, 1760, 
67 Loring ; b. June 7, 1762. 
6$ Samuel; b. Aug. 26, 1764. 
69 Daniel; b. June 25, 1766. 

22-59 Convers Francis; m. Susanna Rand, May 11, 178S, who 

d. May 7, 1S14 ; children : — 
James; b. June 12, 17S9; lived at Wayland. 
Susanna; b. Oct. 7, 1 790 ; m". J. K. Frothingham of 

Charlestown. 
Mary; b. May 29, 1793; m. Warren Preston; d. Sept. 

21, 1847. 
Convers; b. Nov. 9, 1795, of Harvard College. 
Lydia; b. Feb. 11, 1S02; m. David L. Childs. She was 

noted as a novelist and an abolitionist. 

15-2S Joseph Francis and Elizabeth Usher, daughter of Hez- 
ekiah and Jane (Greenleaf) ; rn. May 15, 1764; chil- 
dren: — 



1905.3 GENEALOGY OF THE FRANCIS FAMILY. 41 

Joseph. 

Elizabeth (married Tower). 
Mary (unmarried). 

John (kept a grocery store on Eliot street, Boston). 
Thomas Dakin (kept grocery store Pleasant street, Bos- 
ton.) b. Oct. 6, 17S5. 

Thomas Dakin Francis ; m. Martha Everly Wise, in Bos- 
•ton, April 10, 1S05 Children: — 
Joseph; (died in infancy). 

Martha; b. Dec. iS (?) 1S0S; m. Francois Lecompte. 
Mary Elizabeth; b. April 24, 1S10; m. Isaac Groves. 
Rebecca; b. Feb. 17, 1812; m. Noah Porter. 
George Washington ; b. Feb. ( ?) 1S14 ; m. Fannie Jones.* 
Susant Blood; b. Aug. 21, 1S1 7 ; m. Oliver Wales. 
Deborah; b. March 10, 1S20; m. Lyman Senter. 
Thomas; b. Feb. 26, 1S22 ; m. Marilla L. G. Shaw 

(married son living). 
Ann Sharp; b. March 6, 1S24 (unmarried). 
Daniel Sharp; b. April 1, 1S26 (twin brother died in in- 
fancy) ; m. Sarah Sampson (no children). 

Mary Elizabeth Francis; m. Isaac Groves, Nov. 5, 

1834 ; children : ■ — ■ 
Charles Alfred Groves; b. Aug. 31, 1S32 ; m. Elizabeth 

Lord. 
Elizabeth Augusta; b. May 27, 1S37; m. Erastus Talbot 

Colburn ; no children. 
Martha Francis; b. April 24, 1S39; m * Austin Valancourt 

Tilton. 
Anna Francis ; b. Feb. 6, ; m. Charles Sanderson 

Young. 
Elizabeth Augusta Groves; m. Erastus Talbot Colburn ; 

children : — 
Grace Talbot; b. Aug. 8, 1869. 

George Erastus; b. June 7, 1873; d. Aug. 31, 1874. 
Helen Elizabeth; b. April 12, 1876. 
Marj- Francis; b. May 3, 1877. 

Martha Francis Groves; b. April 24, 1S39; m. Austin 
Valancourt Tilton ; children : — 
Mary Stearns; b. July 9, 1S74; d. Aug. 25, 1876. 

Anna Francis Groves; m. Charles Sanderson Young; 
d. April 4, 1882. Left daughter, Anna Martha; b. 
March 6, 1SS2. 

•There may be two sons. 

tSusan Blood ( Francis) Wales is still in good health, and from her I have obtained the 
above information about her grandfather, Joseph Francis' children, and her father, Thomas Dakin 
Francis, and his descendants. C. S. Y. 



42 



STJRANGEXS IN MED FORD. 



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44 HIGH STREET ABOUT 1S20. [April. 

HIGH STREET ABOUT 1820. 

Mr. Elijah B. Smith, who was born in Medford, April 4, 1S13, 
and died in that city, August 16, 1903, wrote, just before his death, 
a few recollections of the old homesteads in West Medford which 
were standing in his boyhood, and his notes form the basis of this 
article. H. T. VV. 

ABOUT a hundred rods from Weir bridge, on the 
north side of High street was a small house owned 
by Spencer Bucknam, occupied by a Mr. Peirce, afterward 
by Isaac Greenleaf for a few years, and then torn down. 
Mr. Greenleaf lived afterward on Fulton street. 

On the south side of the street was the Payson farm 
of some fifty acres. The house and other buildings were 
a few rods from the Middlesex Canal. Elijah Smith and 
family occupied this place from 1S10 to 1830. Mr. Smith 
was born in Lexington, Massachusetts. He was six years 
old when the battle of Lexington occurred, and he had a 
distinct remembrance of the event. The Payson farm 
being so near to the canal bridge, Mr. Smith's house was 
free and open to passengers taking the boats. 

Over the bridge crossing the canal lived Thomas Calfe, 
the gardener for Peter C. Brooks. This house was on 
the corner of Grove street. 

An eighth of a mile further east lived Miss Rebecca 
Brooks- — "Aunt Becky." Robert Caldwell lived in her 
house and carried on the farm. This house was remod- 
elled and used by Mrs. T. P. Smith for a boarding school 
in the fifties. The school was known as Mystic Hall 
Seminary for Young Ladies, and was very popular in its 
day. 

Nearly opposite lived Miss Rebecca's brother Caleb, 
on the present site of the railroad station. One of the 
first station agents of the Boston and Lowell railroad at 
West Medford lived there afterward. He was known as 
"Dontey" Green. This house was destroyed by the great 
tornado. 

A few rods beyond lived Eleazar Usher, in the house 
owned by his brother-in-law, Leonard Bucknam. "Uncle 
Leonard" was the keeper of the almshouse. 



1 905 . ] HIG II S TREE T ABOUT 1 $20 . 4 5 

Opposite lived Major Gershom Tcel and afterward 
Captain Joseph YVyatt. This house, occupied quite re- 
cently by Mr. William J. Cheney, is standing in 1905. 
Just below the Usher house lived Deacon Amos Warren. 
Warren street was cut through the deacon's estate and 
named in his honor. Later Mr. Reed, father of Rebecca 
Reed, whose story of ill treatment brought about the des- 
truction of the nunnery at Charlestqwn, lived in the 
Warren house. 

Just beyond Whitmore brook, on the north side of the 
street, lived Captain Samuel Teel. This house is stand- 
ing (1905) on the westerly corner of Brooks street. A 
few rods east — on the easterly corner of Allston street as 
now built — was a house occupied by Stephen Symmes, 
who afterward moved to the west side of Mystic pond. 
The next occupant was Thomas Huffmaster, who was 
killed during the tornado of 1850. The site is now owned 
by the heirs of John H. Norton, whose wife was a daugh- 
ter of Mr. Huffmaster. 

About half a mile farther east, in the colonial mansion 
which still beautifies the street, resided Master Kendall, 
the teacher of the town school. After him came Mr. 
Stickney, Rev. Caleb Stetson and Jonathan Brooks, who 
formerly lived in the ancient dwelling still standing at the 
corner of Woburn street. Both these houses are owned 
by the estate of Miss Lucy Ann Brooks, daughter of 
Jonathan. The mansion crowns the second slope of 
Ma'am Simonds hill, which in early days was called 
Bishop's hill, being dignified by a separate name in honor 
of the Bishop family who were large land owners between 
Woburn and Allston streets. 

Directly opposite the old Jonathan Brooks house dwelt 
Jeduthan Richardson, in a very ancient house which 
seems destined soon to vanish before the march of 
modern improvement. Edward L. Staniels, who married 
Mr. Richardson's daughter, succeeded him. 

On the easterly corner of Woburn street was the house 
and farm of James Wyman. Benjamin Noyes, gunsmith, 



46 HIGH STREET ABOUT 1820. [April, 

lived there for a few years, and the premises were next 
leased for ten years to Elijah Smith. The house long 
since disappeared, but the old cellar can still be seen. 

Mr. Wyman would never sell the land, and often came 
to walk over the broad acres, getting pleasure enough 
from these excursions to pay for the lack of income. He 
died in Boston when over ninety years old. 

A few feet from this house was the house and stable of 
Joseph Wyman, the stage driver between Medford and 
Boston. His father owned the Russell farm on Win- 
throp street. 

Henry Weir and family, and later Edwin Johnson, lived 
a little further down the hill. The Joseph Wyman house 
is standing, but the Weir house made way for the house 
of Milton F. Roberts on the easterly corner of High 
street court. 

" Ma'am Simonds hill " was named in honor of Mrs. 
Joshua Simonds who with her daughters "Nabby" and 
Pamelia kept a dame school for many years in the house 
on the north side of High street. It used to be sheltered 
from the street by large lilac bushes which grew on the 
slope between the sidewalk and the roadway. A face 
wall has been built and the sidewalk lowered, which adds 
to the comfort of the pedestrian and detracts from the 
picturesqueness of the house. 

Next below was the old Putnam tavern, and beyond, 
the home of Mi not Richardson, whose daughter married 
Augustus Baker, the proprietor of the Medford House. 
This house stood on the edge of the roadway, but has 
been moved back. 

John Wade owned the house where Mr. George H. 
Bean the florist lives now. Major Wade's tannery was 
just east of this house, and family tradition says that he 
built the last named dwelling and two others opposite 
for his operatives. 

Mr. A. D. Puffer's mansion, remodelled and moved 
back from the street, was the home of Major Samuel Swan 
and his son Joseph. This house was originally the 



icps .] GUSTAVUS FISHER GUILD. • 47 

Ebenezer Brooks mansion. Previous to 1812 the house 
was occupied by his half brother, Captain Caleb Brooks, 
who was guardian of his nephew Ebenezer. 

Jonathan Porter's house, a few years ago demolished, 
was the home of William Furness. This house was for- 
merly the residence of Parson Turell. The next and 
nearest neighbor was " Cherry " Bucknam, so called be- 
cause he made such excellent cherry rum. This house 
made way for Grace Church rectory. Next came the 
house of William Roach and, beyond, the Samuel Train 
house. This house was once the property of one Mr. 
Wyman, who preceded Mrs. Rowson as the proprietor of 
the famous select school for girls. 



GUSTAVUS FISHER GUILD. 
1859-1904. 

The Medforcl Historical Society has lost another one 
of its members, who, though not taking an active part 
in its work, was always interested in the things for which 
the society stands. 

Gustavus Fisher Guild was born in Canton, Mass., 
July 25, 1859, of old colonial stock. He was the son of 
Horace Guild, Jr., and Mary C. Jones. His great-grand- 
father, Major Aaron Guild of South Declham, partici- 
pated in the battle of April 19, 1775, leaving his plough 
and oxen in the furrow and arriving at the scene of 
action in time to aid in firing upon the British as they 
retreated. He saw other service in the Indian and Rev- 
olutionary Wars. Mr. Guild's descent from John Guild, 
who came from Scotland to Dedham in 1636, is John 1 , 
Samuel 5 , Nathaiel 3 , Aaron 4 , Joel 5 , Horace 6 , Florace 7 . 

He received his early education in the grammar and 
high schools of his native town, afterward taking a four 
years' high school course at the Bridgewater Normal 
School. Fie was always an eager, earnest student, and 
he supplemented his normal school training by several 



48 G US TA I T S FISHER G UJLD. [ April, 

courses at the Harvard Summer School, pursuing history, 
modern languages and physical culture, in all of which 
branches be was an enthusiast. 

Mr. Guild began his work as a teacher immediately 
on graduating from Bridgewater, in 1SS0, filling, most 
acceptably, positions in several of our large towns, and 
received rapid promotions. He was in charge of a school 
in Marblehead when he received a call, in 1SS6, to one 
of the large boys' schools in Boston, the Brimmer School. 
Here he labored faithfully and conscientiously for nearly 
eighteen years, a good friend and wise counsellor to his 
pupils, and a great favorite among his fellow teachers, 
who held him in great esteem on account of his many 
sterling qualities. 

In addition to his regular employment during the day, 
he taught in the evening schools, being principal of the 
Lincoln, and, later, of the Franklin Evening School. 
His executive ability and his untiring devotion to his 
work accomplished marvellous results, and the school 
under his charge ranked very high among the evening 
schools of Boston. 

In our own city he has served on the school board, 
and was a zealous and valued worker on the parish com- 
mittee of the First Parish Church. 

Mr. Guild was a member of several educational clubs 
of Boston, a member of the Blue Hill Lodge of Masons, 
and also of Boston Commandery of Knights Templars. 

He passed away at his home, 31 College avenue, 
Medford, August 23, 1904, aged forty- five years. His 
life was comparatively short, but " we live in deeds, not 
years? He has "fought the good fight;" he has "finished 
his course ; " he has " kept the faith." May he receive 
the "crown. of righteousness." ELLA L. BURBANK. 

ERRATA. 

On Page 30 of this issue, under Simpson's Hotel, in 
the third and fourth lines, read Andrew Hall, instead of 
Philip Carteret; and April 29, instead of May 20. 



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SUMMER MOUSE, ROYALL ESTATE, MEDFORD. 



The Medford Historical Register. 



Vol. VIII. JULY, 1905. No. 3. 



THE LOYALISTS OF MEDFORD. 

By Grace L. Sargent. 

[Read before the Medford Historical Society, April 17, 1005.] 

THE loyalists represented the conservative and aris- 
tocratic element in colonial politics. Many of 
them bore names that had been connected with the royal 
government for several generations. They had a firm 
conviction that "the powers that be" were in the right 
and that the existing order of things could not be over- 
thrown by a parcel of rebels, as they considered their 
opponents. The result of the siege of Boston and its 
evacuation by the British was a great blow to them. 
Through the hard winter of 1775-76 upward of a thous- 
and of them had been shut up in Boston, whither they 
had fled for protection, exposed to hunger, cold and the 
loathsome disease small pox. The versatile Burgoyne, 
leaving for a while his complaints against his brother 
chiefs, sought to enliven that dreary winter by organizing 
plays which were performed in Faneuil Hall, "the cradle 
of liberty." One farce "The Blockade of Boston," in 
which Washington was caricatured, was said to be his own 
production. Washington remarked that it might turn 
out a tragedy. His words were justified when the British 
awoke one morning in March to find Dorchester Heights 
occupied by the enemy and their own position no longer 
tenable. On the seventeenth of March, 1776, the obnox- 
ious British soldiers left Boston to the triumphant Ameri- 
cans, and with them went. more than a thousand loyalists, 
including men, women, and children. Sabine says, " Of 
members of the .Council, commissioners, officers of the 



5 THE I O \ , i LIS TS OF MED FORD. [July, 

customs and other officials, there were one hundred and 
two ; of clergymen, eighteen ; of merchants and other 
persons who resided in Boston, two hundred and thir- 
teen ; of farmers, mechanics and traders, three hundred 
and eighty-two." Most of these found new homes in 
Halifax; some few went to England or to colonies 
belonging to Great Britain, but all had to commence 
life anew, exiled from their native land, and many of 
them stripped of the greater part of their property. 

The Americans now found time to formulate laws 
against the loyalists. Van Tyne says " In Massachusetts 
a very perfect piece of machinery was at once invented 
for weeding out the Tories. The selectmen of each town 
were to 'warn a meeting' of the inhabitants. Some 
person firmly attached to the American cause was to be 
chosen by ballot. The person thus elected was charged 
with the duty of laying before the courts evidence to 
prove the inimical character of any inhabitant whom the 
freeholders charged with favoring the British cause. 
The Selectmen were to make a list of men who had 
shown Tory sympathies since the Battle of Lexington. 
Any one present at the meeting might suggest a name 
to the moderator or chairman. This name was added 
to the list if a majority of those present so voted. The 
completed list was given to two or more justices of the 
peace who issued warrants for the arrest of the proscribed 
persons." The first test law of Massachusetts, dated 
May i, 1776, was among the earliest passed by any of 
the colonies; it was general in its application, affecting 
all males over sixteen. It obliged people to swear that 
the war was just and necessary on the part of the colonies, 
that they would not aid the British in any way, but would 
use their best power and ability to defend the American 
colonies. The refusal to subscribe to this oath made the 
offender subject to trial by jury as an enemy to his 
country and if found guilty he could neither hold office 
nor vote. If he were a minister, schoolmaster, or a gov- 
ernor of Harvard college he was to lose his salary. 



1905.] THE LOYALISTS OF MED FORD. 51 

The second test law, January (?), 1778, affected per- 
sons suspected of being inimical (except mandamus coun- 
cillors who had accepted office and all who since April 
*9> 1775, had joined the enemy or enlisted men for his 
service — these were not even allowed to take the oath.) 
Anyone under this law found guilty of refusing to sub- 
scribe the test oath was to be committed to jail (he to 
pay the costs) and sent to British territory within forty 
days. If he returned, he incurred the penalty of death. 
The other laws passed in 177S affected specific classes, 
members of the General Assembly, civic and military 
officers, attorneys at law, so that virtually a loyalist lawyer 
was debarred from the practice of his profession. 

Massachusetts passed one law restricting freedom of 
speech, February 4, 1777, under the title "A law or the 
punishment of crimes below the degree of treason and 
misprison of treason," which was directed especialiy 
against those who censured the Declaration of July 4, 
1776. The penalty attached to such a crime was a fine 
not to exceed £^0 nor to be less than 20s. or confine- 
ment in jail. 

April 9, 1777, there was passed "An Act to prevent 
the waste of the estates of loyalists leaving estate of £20 
or more within the state." Under this Act the Judges 
of Probate were authorized to appoint agents for such 
estates, preference being given to the principal creditor 
provided he were not a relative. The agent was to take 
possession of the goods and estate of the absentee as if 
he were administrator of a deceased person's estate, to 
file an inventory and render accounts of his doings from 
time to time as ordered by the Judge of Probate. The 
wife of the absentee, if she remained, was entitled to 
have the use of one-third of the real estate. 

An Act to prevent the return to the state of certain 
persons therein named was passed in 1778 and included 
the names of Isaac Royal 1 and his son-in-law, Sir Wil- 
liam Pepperell. Any one named in this Act having the 
temerity to return might be arrested and put into jail, 



52 THE LOYALISTS OF MED FORD. [July, 

transported to some province of Great Britain at his 
own expense if possible, otherwise at the expense of the 
state. If he persisted in returning after such banish- 
ment, death without benefit of clergy would be the pun- 
ishment of his crime. 

Two Acts to confiscate were passed April 30, 1779; 
one entitled "An Act to confiscate the estates of certain 
persons commonly called absentees;" the other, "An 
Act to confiscate the estates of certain notorious con- 
spirators against the government." All debts due before 
April 19, 1775, were to be paid; the wife or widow was 
to have the use of one-third of the personal estate and 
her dower in the real estate set off. 

An Act passed in 1781 empowered commissioners for 
the different counties to make sale of the estates of ab- 
sentees named in the two foregoing Acts. The com- 
missioners for the County of Middlesex were James 
Prescott, Joseph Hosmer and Samuel Thacher, and by 
them were sold the estate of Joseph Thompson of Med- 
ford and certain estate in Medford, the property of one 
Charles Ward Apthorp of Boston (?). 

The absentees of Medford were few in number; in 
fact, two only, Isaac Rovall and Joseph Thompson, re- 
sided here. Both were descended from the early settlers; 
Isaac Royall from William Ryall who first settled at 
Salem, having a large grant of land called Ryall Side 
(a name still applied to a part of Beverly), and who 
early removed to Maine ; Joseph Thompson, from James 
Thompson who came to Charlestown (1630) and who 
subsequently became one of the founders of Woburn. 
Daniel Thompson, the " martyr hero " of Woburn who 
fell at the Battle of Lexington, and Benjamin Thomp- 
son, better known as Count Rumford, descended from 
the same stock. 

Isaac Royall was born on the island of Antigua, 17 19, 
and was the son of Isaac and Elizabeth Royall. It may 
be inferred from various items in the account of Jacob 
Royall, the executor of his father's will, that young Isaac, 



1905.] THE LOYALISTS OF MED FORD. 53 

together with a brother William and his sister Penelope, 
were sent to New England to be educated. Jacob seems 
to have acted as his brother's agent until he came to 
Charlestown, even making the purchase of the Usher 
estate, of which the present Royall house and grounds 
is only a very small part. The intention of Isaac Roy- 
all, senior, seems to have been to found an estate that 
should descend in regular succession after the English 
fashion, and perpetuate tire name of Royall for several 
generations; for after dividing his Antiguan property 
equally between his two remaining children, Isaac and 
Penelope, and bequeathing his estate in Maine and in 
Worcester County to Isaac, he wills his estate in Med- 
ford, Charlestown and W 7 cburn, and also that in Bristol 
County to his brother, Jacob Royall, in trust for ' £ my 
son Isaac " for life, and afterwards to the sons of his son 
Isaac, in regular succession, and to their heirs, prefer- 
ence being given to the eldest In default of male heirs 
of son Isaac at the time of the death of the testator the 
estate was to descend in tail to the daughters of Isaac. 
Failing heirs in the male line, the entailed estate was to 
be held in trust for Penelope on the same terms as for 
Isaac, with this proviso, that her husband "should change 
his Sirname and call himself by the name of Royall." 
Further provision w T as made for the succession of his 
brother Samuel's children and their heirs male. There 
is another clause in the will of Isaac Royall, senior, which 
has given rise to ingenious surmising as to the identity 
of his wife. He leaves certain property to " my daugh- 
ter-in-law, Ann Oliver, the wife of Robert Oliver of 
Dorchester." Brooks (History of Medford) and Harris 
(New England Royalls) state that Isaac Royal married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Asaph Elliot of Boston, which is 
undoubtedly correct. Harris further states that this 
Elizabeth had been previously married to one Oliver by 
whom she had a male child (presumably Robert Oliver). 
But the Elizabeth Royall who came to Charlestown with 
her husband was the widow of James Brown of Antigua, 



5 4 THE L O YA L IS TS OF MED FORD. Q u 1 y , 

and was married to Isaac Royall in Antigua, June 3, 
1 yoy. Her daughter by her former husband, Ann Brown, 
married (also in Antigua), February 3, 172 1, Robert 
Oliver. This seems more reasonable than to suppose that 
a widow Oliver should have been married a second time 
under her maiden name of Elliot, for so the record stands. 
Brooks speaks of the suspicion that naturally fell upon 
our Isaac Royall on account of his affiliation with the 
Vassalls of Cambridge. Penelope Royall's husband was 
Henry Vassal! of Cambridge, who died about 1769. His 
brother John, who built the Longfellow house, left several 
children, one of whom (John) married Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Ann and Robert Oliver; his sister, Eliza- 
beth Vassall, married Ann Olivers son Thomas, who 
was the last royal lieutenant-governor, and who suffered 
at the hands of a Cambridge mob because of his appoint- 
ment as one of the mandamus councillors. 

Isaac Royall of Medford was married in Kings Chapel, 
March 27, 1738, to Elizabeth Mackintosh, and lived on 
the estate left by his father in Charlestown (afterward a 
part of Medford). Here his children were born and 
brought up and here he delighted to entertain his friends 
after a right royal fashion. He was a good citizen, in- 
terested in all that concerned the town and colony, 
loved and respected by his fellow townsmen, and very 
liberal. In the parish records of the First Church of 
Medford maybe found the following: " 1755, August 31. 
Received a Folio Bible of the Hon ble I. Royall & voted 
Thanks." Another gift was a large handled cup in- 
scribed "The gift of the Hon. Isaac Royall, Esq., to the 
Church of Christ in Medford." This is the cup referred 
to in the Church records under date of October 19, 1781. 
" At a meeting of ye Brethren this Day information was 
given yt Isaac Royall late of this Town, Esq., an absen- 
tee had in a letter to his attorney dated Nov. 9, 1778, 
ordered yt a Silver Cup left among his Effects shd be 
presented to this Chh : but inasmuch as ye Effects of 
the sd Absentee had been sequestered by ye Common- 



1905.] THE LOYALISTS OF MEDFORD. 55 

wealth 6e ye sd Cup was now in ye Care of ye Agent 
for his Estate, ye Chh could not obtain it without leave 
from the Genl Court." October 26, 17S1, on petition of 
David Osgood, pastor of the Church of Christ in Med- 
ford, it was resolved by the General Court that the agent 
of the estate of Isaac Royall be directed to deliver a cer- 
tain silver cup to the Church of Medford. Absence did 
not lessen his interest in the town where he had lived 
so long, for in his will he bequeathes to the Church of 
Medford a piece of plate to the value of £\o. This is 
noted in a list of plate belonging to the church Novem- 
ber i, 1793, as "a dish for the bread inscribed 'The 
legacy of the Hon. Isaac Royal, Esq., to the Church of 
Christ in Medford, 1781.'" 

The children of Isaac Royal were Elizabeth, mentioned 
in her grandmother's will as one of her god-daughters, 
and who died young; Mary Mackintosh, the wife of George 
Erving of Boston (an absentee); a second Elizabeth, who 
became the wife of Sir William. Pepperell, and who died 
on the voyage to England; Miriam, who married Thomas 
Savel and some of whose descendants still live in Med- 
ford. It seems singular that no mention is made of this 
last named daughter either in the will of Isaac Royall 
or in that of his wife Elizabeth, who died in 1770. 

Isaac Royall left Medford April 16, 1775, as he states 
in his will, leaving his estate in the care of his friend, Dr. 
Simon Tufts. It was his intention to retire for a time 
to his estate in Antigua, but finding it impossible to ob- 
tain a passage thither, he went to Halifax and finally to 
England, where the remaining years of his life were spent; 
he regretted the necessity for his exile and was always 
looking forward to the time when he might return to his 
old home. 

On the 23d of April, 1778, on petition of Simon Tufts, 
agent of Isaac Royall, it was resolved by the General 
Court that he be directed to deliver into the hands of the 
Committee of Correspondence of the Town of Medford 
all the estate of Isaac Royall, and the said Committee 



56 THE LOYALISTS OF MEDFORD. [July, 

were directed to receive the same and to improve it in 
the most "prudent manner they can." Later however, 
in June, 1778, after the filing a certificate signed by the 
major part of the Selectmen of Med ford (Stephen Hall 
tertius, Ebenezer Hall & Benjamin Hall), Simon Tufts 
was formally appointed agent of the estate by the Judge 
of Probate, he giving a bond for ,£1,000 for the faithful 
performance of his trust. In this bond it is stated that 
Isaac Royall has fled to our enemies for protection. 
The real estate, including the farm at Foxborough, was 
valued at ,£47,098, and the personal estate at £3,603- 
7-4 ; the rents of the real estate at the time of the in- 
ventory were valued at £434-4-8. The estate was 
rented or leased to different persons, and after the pay- 
ment of necessary expenses, the balance of the receipts 
was turned over to the State Treasurer. One account 
allowed September 5, 1 78 1, states that £"35,082-5 was 
received by the sale of furniture, the chariot, etc., of 
which ,£28,351-17-4 was turned over to Treasurer 
Gardner. In a list of absentees on file in the Probate 
Office with the amounts handed over to the Treasurer 
from the rents of their estates while in the hands of 
agents, Isaac RoyalPs agent is credited with paying into 
the State Treasury £758-3-7^2, in hard money, or 
rather the heading reads " paid or ordered to be paid to 
the State Treasurer." A commission in insolvency was 
issued April 5, 1781, to Thomas Brooks, Aaron Hall and 
Moses Billings of Medford. Their report was filed, but 
" the creditors refuse to have their claims liquidated on 
account of fluctuations in the currency." 

Isaac Royall died of small pox in London, England, in 
1 78 1, and his will written on parchment was probated 
there so far as relates to the estate in Antigua, Sir Wil- 
liam Pepperell being appointed executor. He had ex- 
pressed a wish that his will should also be recorded in 
Suffolk County, Massachusetts, so it may be found in 
the records of the Probate Office in Boston. After 
leaving small legacies to different relatives, handsome 



1 905 • ] THE LOYA L IS TS OF MED FORD. 5 7 

enamelled mourning rings to friends (among others to 
Ebenezer Tirell (?) and David Osgood), he gives to the 
Town of Medford for the support of schools ioo acres 
of land in Granby formerly known by the name of South 
Hadley. All the remaining land in Granby (809 acres) 
and his right of land in the county of Worcester (92S 
acres) which he bought December 2S, 1752, in company 
with the Hon. James Otis, John Chandler and Caleb 
Daney, he gives to the Overseers and Corporation of 
Harvard College to endow a professorship of laws or 
physics and anatomy, and they shall have full power to 
sell said lands and to put the money out at interest, the 
income whereof shall be for the aforesaid purpose. The 
simple professorship of laws led the way to the estab- 
lishment of the Harvard Law School, so that our Cam- 
bridge University has much to thank Isaac Royall for. 

A special bequest gives to Harriot Pepperell, a grand- 
daughter, four pieces of land in Medford; namely: 3 
acres forming part of the land leased to Gershom Wil- 
liams, a wood lot 14^2 acres commonly called Turkey 
Swamp; two more wood lots under one inclosure 29 
acres 26 rods on the hill commonly called Pine. Hill. 
These lots were purchased by him after the death of his 
father. 

The rest of the real estate in Medford, the house and 
land in Walpole, he leaves in trust to Dr. Simon Tufts, 
Jacob Royall and Thomas Palmer as an entailed estate 
to be held in trust for Mary Mcintosh Royall during her 
life, then to go to her first son and his issue, then to her 
other sons in succession and, failing sons, to her daughters. 
Failing heirs in this line, then to his grandson William 
Pepperell for life, and then to his heirs. Further provis- 
ion is made that the estate shall descend in the following 
order; to Elizabeth Royall Pepperell and her heirs; 
Penelope Vassall, and, after her, to her daughter Eliza- 
beth ; then to William Royall, Jacob Royall, and Elia 
Royall. The estate was not to descend to the heirs of 
the last three named. This entailed estate was to be 



58 THE LOYALISTS OF MEDFORD. [July, 

called Royall Ville. Failing heirs, one half the income 
was to be expended to found a hospital in Medford or 
Charlestown ; the other half for the support of a professor 
of laws at Harvard College. 

The estate was never sold by the government, so that 
after the passage of a law for the barring of entails, the 
heirs were enabled to sell the entailed estate. A deed 
on record in the Middlesex South District Registry of 
Deeds shows that James Sullivan and Christopher Gore 
as representing the heirs sold to one Robert Fletcher 
the entailed estate of Isaac Royall for the purchase 
money according to a Decree of the Court of Chancery 
(England). This included the Royall Farm and a lot 
of land north of the Great Brickyard (520 acres), and a 
pew in the Parish Church, all in Medford, also the estate 
in Foxborough known as the Royall Foxborough Farm 
(500 acres.) Later it was disposed of to different indi- 
viduals, a part being sold for the old Middlesex Canal. 

Joseph Thompson was the son of Joseph and Sarah 
Thompson, who were located in Medford at least as 
early as 1722, coming here from Woburn, and who were 
admitted to full communion with the church of Medford 
in 172S. They lie buried side by side in the little burial 
ground on Salem street. Joseph, the subject of this 
sketch, was born May 16, 1734, and his baptism is re- 
corded May 19, 1734. He was married in Boston, June 
26, 1759, to Rebecea Gallup, whom Isaac Royal refers 
to in his will as a kinswoman of his wife, leaving her £$ 
to buy a mourning ring or to expend in some other way 
if more agreeable to her. As the eldest son a double 
portion was assigned to him out of his father's estate 
after the widow's dower was set off (1 75S). He added 
to this by the purchase from time to time of small estates, 
the records of his real estate transactions in the Registry 
of Deeds at East Cambridge extending from 1759 to 
1774, and his occupation is given therein as merchant. 
He had several sisters who married and settled in Med- 
ford: Sarah, the wife of Jonathan Tufts; Mary, of Samuel 



1 905 .] THE L O YA LIS TS OF MED FORD. 5 9 

Kidder; Frances, of Joseph Calef; Ruth, of Benjamin 
Floyd ; Susannah, of Ebenezer Brooks; and one brother, 
William, who died unmarried. At the settlement of the 
dower estate, Joseph and two sisters, Ruth Floyd and 
Susannah Brooks, were the only surviving children, and 
that part of the estate, after setting aside two shares for 
the heirs 1 of Joseph, now an absentee, was assigned to 
Samuel Kidder, a grandson. 

Sabine states that in June, 1775, news reached the 
Provincial Congress that the Irvings of Boston had fitted 
out under color of chartering to Thompson, a schooner 
of their own, to make a voyage to New Providence to 
procure provision for the British troops shut up in Bos- 
ton. One Captain Samuel Webb was sent to Salem 
and Marblehead to secure Thompson and prevent the 
vessel from making the voyage. Thompson, however, 
made good his escape. 

March 11, 1779, his estate was put into the hands of 
Richard Hall of Medford as agent. No inventory was 
filed, but on April 6, 1780, an account was allowed, the 
balance of which, ;£ 446-2, was assigned to his wife, 
Rebecca Thompson, for her support. On June 3, 17S0, 
on the petition of Rebecca Thompson asking that she 
be granted leave to rejoin her husband in England on 
the first convenient opportunity, and also to return again 
to this state, the General Court decreed that the said 
petition be so far granted as to allow her to go, but she 
might not return without leave being first obtained of 
the General Court, and the Committee of Inspection for 
Medford was directed to see that she carried no letters 
nor papers that might be detrimental to this or any of 
the United States of America. 

Joseph Thompson's real estate was sold in 1782 and 
1783 by the committee appointed to dispose of the estates 
of absentees. The deeds all begin with the following 
preamble, " Commonwealth of Massachusetts. To all 
People to whom these Presents shall come : Greeting — 
Whereas in and by an Act of the great and general 



60 7 HE L O YALIS TS OF MED FORD. [Ju ly, 

Court passed and enacted on the thirtieth day of April in 
the Year of our Lord One Thousand seven hundred & sev- 
enty nine the Estate of the Persons therein mentioned 
for the Reasons in the same Act set forth are declared 
to be forfeited & ordered to be confiscated to the use of 
the Government, And Whereas by another Act of the 
same Court passed in the same Year the Estates of all 
Persons guilty of the Crimes therein mentioned & de- 
scribed are made confiscable in manner as by the same 
Act is provided. And by another Act passed in the 
Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred & eighty 
one empowering us James Prescott Joseph Hosmer and 
Samuel Thatcher Esqrs to make sale of certain Estates 
situate in the County of Middlesex aforesaid confiscated 
as aforesaid to the Use of the Government. And there 
being a due & legal Confiscation of the Estate of Joseph 
Thompson Merchant situate in Medford in the County 
aforesaid;" then follows the description of the land as 
in an ordinary deed. In this way 6 acres of salt marsh 
bordering on Medford river were sold at public vendue 
to Ebenezer Hall, Jr., for £70; a dwelling house and 
yard bounded south on the great road to Thomas Pat- 
ten for ^295 ; i l / 2 rods of land (part of the dower estate 
of his mother) with 3-16 of the dwelling horse % of an 
acre of mowing land, 20 rods of plow land to Samuel 
Kidder for ,£24-15; a pew in the meeting-house to 
Susanna Brooks, widow, for ,£10; 8 acres of land 
bounded south on the great road and west on Proprie- 
tor's Way, and situated near the Hay Market to Jona- 
than Foster for ,£252-10; and about 10 poles of land 
with a joiner's shop thereon bounded north on the road 
to Maiden to Ebenezer Hall for .£40-5 ; making a total 
of ,£692-5. 

The Committee of Correspondence of Medford ren- 
dered two accounts into the Probate Office of their care 
of the estates in their charge. In the account filed 
May 3, i?79 5 Thompson's house, shop, 8 acres of upland 
and his pew in the church; Clewly's pasture and mow- 



1905.] THE LOYALISTS OF MEDFORD. 61 

ing land ; PepperelFs house and his pew in the church 
'are mentioned. Their account allowed April 6, 1780, 
accounts for the rent of Sir William Pepperell's house 
a-nd pew, and about 14 acres of pasture and 14 acres of 
mowing land belonging to the estate of Isaac Clewly. 

Brooks states that the Committee of Correspondence 
had under its care the estate of one Clewly who was 
a resident of Halifax and whose agent was Ichabod 
Jones. In that case the estate referred to in the accounts 
of the committee was that of John Clewly of Halifax, a 
carpenter, who held a mortgage on the estate of Francis 
Whitmore, a resident of Medford at the time the deed 
was given. His estate in Middlesex County was not 
sold by the state, but it was settled in 1795 by his admin- 
istrator, John C. Jones ; his real estate, which consisted 
of about 22 acres in Medford and 6% acres in Weston, 
was sold by his administrator, and after the payment of 
debts, the balance was ordered to be paid to his surviv- 
ing brother and sister, Isaac Clewly and Bathsheba 
W T etherbee, and to the children of his deceased sister, 
Anna Jones. 

Sir William Pepperell was the grandson of the first 
Sir W T illiam Pepperell of Kittery, Me., and the son of 
Elizabeth (Pepperell) and Nathaniel Sparhawk of Kit- 
tery, and was named William Pepperell Sparhawk. In 
accordance with the terms of his grandfather's will, on 
his coming of age he procured an act of legislature to 
drop the name of Sparhawk and call himself William 
Pepperell, and later he was allowed to take his grand- 
father's title also. He was proscribed and banished and 
his estate confiscated. He went to England in 1775, 
and his wife, Elizabeth, a daughter of Isaac Royall, died 
on the passage. He died in England, 181 6, and with 
him the baronetcy became extinct. 



62 



STRANGERS IN MED FORD. 



[July, 



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64 THE WHITMORES OF MEDFORD. [July, 

THE WHITMORES OF MEDFORD AND SOME OF THEIR 
DESCENDANTS. 

[Read before the Medford Historical Society.] 

HAVE been told by our President, Mr. Brown, that 
one of the many good and wise things that have 
been done by this society is collecting and preserving 
the history of the old families who lived in Medford in 
its early days. Many of these still remain here — others 
lived here but a short time. In some cases the names 
are lost, though their descendants, through the marriages 
of their daughters, may be with us now. Others, still, 
vanished so long ago that there remains very little trace 
of them, except in the town and county records. The 
Whitmore family about which I am to speak tonight 
belongs to the latter class. 

Curiously enough, however, it is to one of its descen- 
dants that Medford is indebted for much that is known' 
about its history. I refer to Mr. William Henry Whit- 
more of Boston, who assisted the Rev. Charles Brooks 
in compiling the History of Medford published in 1855. 
According to this history, the earliest record of the 
name of Whitmore is John Whitmore of Stamford, Con- 
necticut. In 1634, Watertown formed a settlement in 
Wethersiield, and in 1640 Stamford was settled by them. 
John Whitmore was made a townsman in 1641, and had 
ten acres of land given him as an original land owner. 
In 1649 he went to the common grounds to look for his 
cattle and never returned. This, with other acts of the 
Indians, caused a declaration of war. Uncas, chief of 
the Mohegans, assembled his tribe, and they led the way 
into the woods and found the body three months after 
his disappearance. He represented Stamford in the 
General Court. He left five children: Thomas, John, 
Ann, Mary and Francis, born in 1625. This is undoubt- 
edly the Francis Whitmore of Cambridge, born in that 
year, whose descendants lived in Medford a hundred 
years. The names of John and Francis occur again 
and again. He lived in Cambridge near the Lexing- 



1905.] THE WHITMORES OF MEDFORD. G5 

ton line, which was at first called Minottamie. The 
Whitmoi'e family came from Lexington, England. There 
were probably other families coming over at the same 
time, and it is supposed that they desired that the new 
town should receive the name of Lexington in memory 
of their old home. At all events the name was changed 
from Minottamie to Lexington, and the home of Francis 
Whitmore stood on the boundary line. He was a tailor, 
and evidently an active, energetic man, much concerned 
in the real estate transfers of that time, as his name 
occurs again and again in the early records of deeds in 
East Cambridge. 

Rev. Charles Brooks tells us that Edward Collins was 
the first land speculator in the Massachusetts Colony, 
but after looking over the early records it has seemed 
to me that many of our ancestors had this mania. 

Certainly Francis Whitmore possessed a great craving 
for buying and selling land, and he owned much in 
Cambridge and Medforcl, as well as in Charlestown, 
Bedford, and even bought it in Rehobeth. The first 
record of a sale I found was February 3, 1654, when he 
and his wife Isabel bought the land on the division line 
between Cambridge and Lexington that I have men- 
tioned. He bought more land on November 25, 1663, 
of Richard and Jane Champney, and more still on July 
2 j, 1670. In February, 1672, he sold land in Cambridge, 
and the deed is signed by himself and his second wife, 
Margaret Harty. There are many other records of his 
sales. At first Cambridge extended from the Boston 
Line to Groton, but on the twenty-fifth of March, 1650, 
the town gave land now forming Billerica and Bedford 
(at that time a part of it) to some of its towns-people; 
later on another large tract was given away, and among 
these names we find that of Francis Whitmore. He 
bought land also in Medford near the present West 
Medford station, about which I shall speak again. He 
was a man of some prominence, apparently, and did 
not belong to the extreme Puritan party, as is shown by 
the fact thai he and his wife signed a petition in favor 



(j& THE WHITAfORES OF MED FORD. [July, 

of a witch, a mark of great liberality for those times. 
He served in some of the Indian wars. It is on record 
at the State House that he received ten shillings for 
services so rendered. He probably went with Captain 
Sill, who took a company of militia from Cambridge 
to the relief of Groton, March 12, 1675, under Major 
Willard, He was married twice. His first wife was 
Isabel Parke. They were probably married in England 
in 1648. His second wife was Margaret Harty. He 
died October 12, 16S5. 

John Whitmore,son of the preceding Francis, was bom 
October 10, 1654, and died February 22, 1 737, in Medford. 
The first record I have found of him was in a deed of 
land sold to him March 29, 1675. This land had already 
been built upon and houses and barns are mentioned. 
This was part of the land once owned by Edward Col- 
lins. He had it from the heirs of Governor Cradock, 
who by instruments dated June 2 and September 16, 1652, 
"quit-claimed all the messuage farm or plantation called 
Meadford, by them owned." 

This is the Edward Collins, called by Rev. Charles 
Brooks the first land speculator in New England. Be- 
sides his frequent purchases and sales of land in Medford 
and its neighborhood, we find him making investments 
in many towms some distance from here ; as for instance, 
he sold land in Billerica, in 1655, to the Richard and 
Jane Champney, who sold land to Francis Whitmore in 
Cambridge, November 25, 1663. As the latter also 
owned land in Billerica, it is possible that it was through 
Mr. Collins that the Whitmores first came to Medford. 

On December 24, 1680, John Whitmore, Thomas 
Willis, Stephen Willis and Stephen Francis, divided 
the balance of the Collins Farm between them. John 
Whitmore had already purchased one-fourth of this 
estate from Caleb Hubbard. The Whitmore house was 
in that part of West Medford where Usher's Block now 
stands, and the Whitmore brook, which runs a few rods 
from it, received its name from this John Whitmore. 
This house was built in 16S0, and torn down in 1840; 



1905 •] THE WHITMORES OF MEDFORD. GT 

it is the house mentioned in the Historical Register 
of this society, Volume 7, Page 49. 

On February 11, 16S0, Francis Whitmore of Cam- 
bridge gave to his son John and wife and heirs two acres 
of meadow land near the West Medford station. This 
land was bounded on the northeast by land of Captain 
Jonathan 1 Wade, easterly by dike joining the land of 
Captain Timothy Wheeler, and west and northwest by 
land already owned by John Whitmore. The latter 
is authorized "at all times and from time to time, to 
quietly enjoy and posess the above land." He also 
owned land in Charlestown and Billerica, John Whit- 
more married Rachel, daughter of Francis Eliot of 
Cambridge and widow of John Poulter of Cambridge. 
John and Rachel Whitmore had three children. 

John Whitmore was interested in town affairs, and in 
the Indian difficulties of that time. He went to Saco 
against them under Major Swayne. How long he re- 
mained is not told, but "his wife Rachel petitioned the 
General Court to release him, and here is a copy of her 
petition. 

" To the Honorable Simon Bradstreet Governor, and the rest 
of the Honorable body now sitting in Boston, the humble petition 
of Rachel Whitmore, wife of John Whitmore. 

''Whereas your petitioner's husband was impressed into the 
county's service against the Indian enemy, and is now with Major 
Swayne at Newchawanick, and your petitioner and her two chil- 
dren are very weak and ill and unable to help ourselves or do any- 
thing for our relief and the rest of the family, as several of our 
neighbors can and have informed your honors. 

" Doth, therefore, humbly request the favor of your honors, 
that her husband, John Whitmore be dismissed the present service, 
and that your honors would please to pass your order for the same, 
that he may return to his sick family and your petitioner shall as 
in duty bound ever pray &c." 

RACHEL WHITMORE. 
Mass. Records Lib. 35, Page 34. 

This was in 1680; before the birth of the last child. 
On his return John Whitmore bought some of the land 
already described, and also built the house which I have 
spoken of. He had two mortgages on this farm. When 



68 THE WHITMORES OF MED FORD. [July, 

he bought the land of Caleb Hubbard there was one on 
it, held by Edward Collins, and he agreed 

'* to pay the latter £3 a year and allow him to take such quantities 
of fire wood and to have such other privileges on said farm as to 
him belongs under the covenant in a mortgage made and dated 
March 30, 1675. The aforesaid annual rent to be paid half on or 
before the last of November, and the other half before the end of 
March, and that then, the grant and Sale above expressed shall to 
all intents be utterly void and of no effect, or, otherwise, shall 
remain in full power for ever and ever." 
County Records, Vol. 7, Page 30. 

The other mortgage was to his wife's mother, Mrs. 
Mary Eliot, who was a widow and evidently resided 
with them here in Medford. It is dated October 19, 
1678. 

"I, John Whitmore, do owe and am indebted to Mary Eliott 
for £100, and for further security do mortgage and bind over my 
land and houses in Billerica, some time belonging to John Poulter. 
The condition of this obligation and mortgage is such, that if said 
Whitmore and his heirs shall pay £50 currant money of N. Eng- 
land, at or before May 1, 16S3, at the house in Medford, where 
she now abides, in one entire sum and during the same term of 4 
years £3 per annum in like monev, that then, this obligation and 
mortgage shall be to all intents and purposes utterly void." 

We learn from the above that Mrs. Eliot resided with 
her daughter, and it is interesting to learn that the land 
in Billerica that he gave as security to his mother-in-law 
was really his wife's, and canie to her through her first 
husband. 

John Whitmore was evidently a man of influence in 
Medford, as he occupied many positions of trust. His 
name occurs frequently in the town and church records. 
On February 1, 1677, he took the oath of fidelity. In 
171 1 he was appointed one of a committee of. three to 
see about a preaeher. At about this time they started 
a contribution box in the church here and John Whit- 
more had charge of it. Later on he was asked to render 
an account of the money so received. This must have 
been considered satisfactory, as he was made deacon of 
the church February 11, 17 13, and signed the covenant. 



1905.] THE Wl I IT MORES OF MEDFORD. 69 

He was elected Selectman in 171 2, and Town Treasurer 
in 1714. He was married twice. His first wife, as I have 
said, was Rachel Eliot. She was a niece of the Apostle 
Eliot, and widow of John Poulter. When she died is 
not known, but he married Rebecca Cutler June 3, 1724. 
He died February 22, 1739, and his funeral sermon was 
preached, by Parson Turell from Acts 21, 1 6th verse: 
" There went with us also certain of the disciples of 
Cesarea and brought with them one Mnason of Cyprus, 
an old disciple, with whom we should lodge." 

The two oldest of the children of John Whitmore 
w r ere twins, born May 8, 1678. Abigail married John 
Elder. As his name does not occur again in the history 
of Medford, they probably lived in another town. Fran- 
cis, however, lived and died here, February 6, 177 1, at 
the age of 93. His first wife was Anna Peirce, and they 
had seven children — six daughters and one son, who 
died when he was three years old. The following record 
is taken from Brook's History of Medford. 

Francis Whitmore m. Anna Peirce, December 7, 1699 and had 

Sarah, b. May 4, 1701. 

Hannah, b. January 22, 1703, died same year. 

Anna, b. May 4, 1707. 

Eliot, b. March 13, 1710; d. March 16, 17 13. 

Rachel, b. April 1, 1712; m. Eben Tufts, February 17, 1 73 1 . 

Merc}-, b. March 11, 17 14. 

Elizabeth, b. August 6, 1 71 6 ; m. Thomas Fillebrown, March 
30, 1732. His wife, Anna, died August 6, 1.7 16, and he 
married, second, Mary , who died March 29, 1760. 

He was a farmer and bought land of Stephen Willis, 
near his father's place. His house stood where the brick 
house on Canal street now is. His father also sold land 
to him. This land was sold to him for ^10 current 
money, in hand, before the signing of the deed, May, 
1726. This land is described as 

"a certain spot or piece of land, on which his dwelling house 
standeth, situate in the town of Medford aforesaid, bounded east- 
erly by the orchard land of Thomas Willis ; northerly eight rods 
on the land of the aforesaid John Whitmore; southerly on the 
highway." 



70 THE WHITMORES OF MEDFORD, [July, 

On February 26, 1739, his father deeded him another 
lot of his land. 

Francis Whitmore, 2d, signed the Church Covenant 
February 11, 17 13. In full town meeting, a committee 
was appointed to consider building a new meeting house. 
The meeting adjourned to meet again March 14, and 
voted to build. There appears to have been some diffi- 
culty in arranging the location, for the residents of the 
West End, as it was called, signed a protest, and among 
the names signed to it are found John Whitmore, senior, 
and his two sons, Francis and John, junior. 

Another plan was proposed, and this time the east 
enders protested, A compromise was effected (after a 
good deal of discussion) which seemed to have suited 
both parties, and the church was built. 

Churches were not consecrated in those days by the 
Puritans, but on the first Sunday that the church was 
occupied Parson Turell preached from Psalm 84, first 
verse, " How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of 
Hosts." 

In town meeting March 7, 174S, Francis was appointed 
second constable, but he preferred to pay a fine of £\o 
rather than serve. Francis and his wife Mary presented 
a silver tankard with a cover to the church in 1761. 
This piece of silver, I am told, has had a little history. 
At the time of our Civil War, the First Parish decided 
to sell some of its silver for the benefit of the soldiers. 
This tankard was one of the pieces selected. Mr. C. O. 
Whitmore, living in Boston, heard of it, bought it and 
returned it to the church, which still possesses it. 

Francis Whitmore, 2d, died February 6, 1 77 1 , at the 
age of 93. Not leaving a son, his name passed from his 
branch of the family. John Whitmore, 2d, was the third 
child of John and Rachel Eliot Whitmore and brother 
of the preceding Francis. He was born in Medford 
August 27, 1 68 3, in the house near Whitmore 's brook. 
The only allusion I have found to him is in connection 
with the church. He evidently was a good member of 
it. He signed the protest made against the new church 



loos.] THE WHITMORBS OF MEDFORD. 71 

with his father and brother. He married Mary Lane of 
Bedford, then part of Billerica, in 1706. 
They had six children. 

Mary, b. Tuly, 170;; m. 1st, J. Webber, August 19. 172^; 2d, 
__ Wh'ite. 

Susanna, b. November 25, 170S; m. 1st, Benjamin Webber, 

September 6, 1726; 2d, Page. 

John, b. April 15, 171 1. 

Francis, b. October 4, 17 14. 

Martha, b. April 22,, 1 7 1 6 ; in. John Skinner, December 22, 

1743; d. March 6, 1780. 
William, b. December 19, 1725. 

John Whitmore, 2d, was first a housewright, and' after- 
wards went into business with his brother Francis, who 
was a tanner. He owned much land in Medford, Bed- 
ford and other towns. His oldest son, John, removed 
to Bedford, and during the latter part of their lives, John 
and Mary Lane Whitmore lived there with him. He 
became much interested in that town, and was such a 
liberal benefactor to the church there that he was men- 
tioned with gratitude in its records. He died March 
2 6, 1 753- His widow lived till March 27, 17S3, and died 
at the age of 96. 

I have been told by our president that this Historical 
Society is interested not merely in the men who lived 
here but also in the women. The most noteworthy thing 
that John Whitmore did during his life appears to be his 
marriage to Mary Lane. She was a granddaughter of 
Job Lane, who was born in 1620 in Rickmansworth, 
England. He was in Rehoboth, N. E., in 1644. He 
went to England, and was married there in 1647, but 
returned to this country and settled in Maiden. In 1658 
he built the first church there. He bought land in Bil- 
lerica, now Bedford, of Fitz John Winthrop, grandson of 
Governor Winthrop, in 1664. 

He also had a large estate in England, and his heirs 
received the income of it until 1S16, when the property 
was sold and divided among them, after 154 years of pay- 
ments to New England heirs — an unparalleled case. 

He married second, Hannah, daughter of Rev. John 



72 THE WHITMORES OF MEDFORD. [July, 

Raynor of Dover, N. H. He represented Maiden and 
Billerica in the General Court, and died in 1697. 

His son John Lane, father of Mary Lane Whit mo re, was 
born in Maiden in 1661 and married Susannah Whipple 
of Ipswich in 16S1. She died in 17 13 and he died in 
1 7 14. They lived in Bedford and had a large family of 
children. * He was very active in Indian wars, and held 
many positions in the militia, being appointed Captain 
by the Earl of Belmont in 1699, Major in a regiment 
of horse and foot in 171 1 by Governor Dudley, and is 
spoken of as Colonel. He was evidently a personal friend 
of Governor Dudley, as is shown in their correspondence. 
His daughter Mary evidently inherited the martial spirit 
of her ancestors. During a season of Indian alarms, 
before her marriage, she was in her father's house in Bed- 
ford, with one soldier on guard, and looking from a win- 
dow in the roof, she saw something suspicious behind a 
stump. The soldier declined to fire; she took his gun, 
discharged it, and a dead Indian rolled into sight. 

John Whitrriore, third of that name, as I have said, 
went to Bedford and remained there, so his line of the 
family passed out of Medford. 

Francis, the third son of John and Mary Lane Whit- 
more, was born here October 4, 17 14. He married 
Mary Hall, January 1, 1739. Their children were: — 

Stephen, b. October 21, 1739. 

Francis, bap. August 16, 1 7 4 1 . 

William, b. September 6, 1746. 

Mary, b. December 25, 1750; m. Thomas Blodgett of Lexington. 

Elizabeth, b. November 27, 1752; m. Elisha Seavins. 

John, b. November 25, 1754. 

Susanna, b. September 14, 1757; m. Thomas Dinsmore. 

Andrew, b. October, 1760. 

This Francis was engaged in business in Medford,- 
but his too generous method of dealing embarrassed his 
affairs, and having with the Rev. Mr. Stone purchased 
a township on the Kennebec river, he removed thither 
with his eldest son Stephen. He died April 27, 1794, 
and his wife died October 20, 1791. 



1905.] - THE WHITMORES OF MEDFORD. 73 

William Whitmore, third son of John and Mary Lane 
Whitmore, was born December 19, 1725. He married 
Mary Brooks, daughter of Thomas and Mary Brooks, 
and had six children. The children all died but Mary, 
born October 25, 1752, who married Mr. Walker of 
Rindge, New Hampshire. William Whitmore was a 
graduate of Harvard College, and at one time a school- 
master, but ill health prevented him from engaging in 
active pursuits. His death was somewhat peculiar, as he 
died in consequence of an illness produced by a dread 
of small pox. His death. occurred March 10, 1760, and 
his widow died October 10, 1765. With him his line' of 
the family name became extinct. 

When Francis and Mary Hall Whitmore went to 
Maine, they took with them their eldest son, Stephen, 
who never returned to Medford. Francis, their second 
son, and fourth of that name, was born September 6, 1 746. 
He married, but the name of his wife is not recorded.* 
They had two children : — 

Elizabeth Sanders, bap. Oct. 13, 1765; d. August 22, 1777. 
Francis, bap. August 2, 1767; d. August 14, 1S20. 

This Francis removed to Boston and with him the name 
of Whitmore departed from Medford. 

I have stated that although the family of Whitmore 
left Medford more than a hundred years ago, that we are 
indebted to one of its descendants for much of the gene- 
alogical work done in the History of Medford. Wil- 
liam Henry Whitmore of Boston, is descended from the 
Francis and Mary Hall Whitmore who went to Maine. 
John, born November 25, 1754, went there with them. 
They lived in Bowdoinham, but John went to Bath and 
there married Fluldah Crooker. He was a pilot and 
was drowned in the Kennebec river through the treach- 
ery of another pilot, who saw him fall back in his boat 
and sailed away, leaving him without assistance. This 
man acknowledged it on his death bed. 

This John and Huldah Crooker Whitmore had twelve 

♦Elizabeth Bowman. [Ed.] 



i-± THE LOYALISTS OF MEDFORD. [July, 

children. The oldest son, William Dickman Whitmore, 
married Rhoda Woodward, January 20, 1S05, and had 
four children, two of whom died in infancy. Of the 
other two, Huldah married Judge Barrows of Brunswick, 
Maine, and had no children. The other, Charles O. 
Whitmore, removed to Boston when a young man, and 
married; first, Lovice Ayres, who died in 1849. He mar- 
ried, second, Mary Tarbell Blake, widow of George Blake 
of Boston. Charles O. and Lovice Ayres Whitmore 
had seven children. The third son, William Henry 
Whitmore,* was born in Dorchester, September 6, 1836, 
and died in Boston in June, 1900. He was a merchant, 
and afterwards City Registrar. He married Frances 
Maynard of Boston and left one son, Charles Edward, 
born in 18S7, now in Harvard College. 

Mr. William Whitmore must have become interested 
in genealogy at a very early age, as he was only eighteen 
at the time the History of Medford was published and 
he worked largely on the genealogies of all the families 
given in that book. 

The following notice is from the Transcript, I think. 

One of the most remarkable achievements of the late William 
H. Whitmore, in connection with his efforts to save the Old State 
House and in restoring its original architecture, was his subduing 
the fierce opposition to the restoration of the lion and the unicorn 
thereon. Inasmuch as these were the emblems of Great Britain, 
there were not lacking of our fellow citizens those that insisted that 
they should not be put back on the building. 

While assisting Mr. Brooks in compiling the History 
of Medford, it occured to him that no more fitting place 
could be found for the remains of his ancestors than the 
old burying ground on Salem street. He had them 
disinterred from their original resting places, and brought 
here and buried. They are in the southeast corner of 
the ground. 

ALICE C. AYRES. 

*Sce Medford Historical Register, vol. 3, p. 153. 



1905.] THE WEST END SCHOOLHOUSE. 75 

THE WEST END SCHOOLHOUSE. 
Moses Whitcher Manx. 

H^HE month of April, 1829, was the time when the 
JL first West Medford schoolhouse was built — the 
humble predecessor of the Brooks schoolhouses — of which 
name there have been three. Frederic Kendall was its 
builder. In constructing it, he deserved commendation 
for the despatch with which he performed his work, as 
did also the committee who had the work in charge and 
employed him. 

The}' were John Angier, Jonathan Brooks, and Noah 
Johnson, and were authorized by the town in the March 
meeting of that year. The selectmen were equally 
prompt in paying Mr. Kendall for his work, as on May 
10 they ordered the treasurer so to do. Three hundred 
and eighty-five dollars paid the bill, and twenty dollars 
more was received by Mr. Brooks for the land. This 
was on the southwesterly side of Woburn street, in 
the corner of the Jonathan Brooks estate, adjoining 
John Bishop's land, where F. A. Oxnard now resides, 
and was nearly opposite the Sarah Fuller Home. It 
was then deemed a central location for the West End, 
which then included the southerly edge of the present 
town of Winchester, once set off from Charlestown to 
Medford, and known as Symmes' Corner. Later, there 
was a school maintained in a dwelling house in that 
locality. The lot was irregular in shape, and so small 
that the building must have been placed with its side 
toward the road. 

Somewhere near by, or on the land, there was a well 
which John Howe in the following September was paid 
for cleansing. Within three years from its erection, 
after much discussion in town meeting, Nathan Adams, 
Nathan Wait and Noah Johnson attended to its removal 
to the town's land on Canal lane, near the Medford 
Almshouse (which was built in 181 2), and nearer to 
Capt. Joseph Wyatt's house on High street. Nearby was 



76 THE WEST E.Y& SCHOOLHOUSE. [July, 

the Whitmore Brook, and across High street was a 
"spreading chestnut tree," in whose shade was the vil- 
lage blacksmith shop. Nearby, also, was a lordly elm ; 
while ii}) the lane that crossed the brook, were poplars 
that are monarchs now. 

In its new location, with its entrance toward the lane 
and brook, it stood for twenty years, and was the Hall 
of Wisdom toward which the youth of the West End 
turned their steps, until their thirst for knowledge out- 
grew its capacities and sought other sources. As 
nearly as can be learned, it was 18x24 feet in size; a 
partition some six feet from the front end, with a door 
in the middle, made on the right a bin for wood, and on 
the left a space for the hanging of the children's wraps. 
This left a square room about nine feet high, with two 
windows in each of the three exterior walls. These 
were well up from the floor, of small panes, and secured 
outside with shutters. The teacher's desk was at the 
right of the entrance, and at the left was a cast iron box 
stove with a door in one end, into which sizable sticks 
of v;ood could be fed. 

The scholars' seats were wooden benches, and the 
desks were of the most primitive kind, made on the spot 
and firmly fastened to the floor. In process of time 
these were hand carved in original and quaint design, 
not furnished by the teachers, however. 

The interior was plastered from the window sill up- 
ward, and was o?ice white, while the exterior may have 
had a coat of red paint or possibly none at all — the 
chances in favor of the latter. It had been nearly four 
years in its new location when one June day the first- 
railway train passed by on its way to Boston. We may 
imagine the curiosity and excitement among the chil- 
dren. Let us trust that the schoolma'arn was kind and 
allowed them to look out and see the novel sight; quite 
likely she did so herself. In 1849 the school committee 
recommended that this schoolhouse be thoroughly re- 
repaired and painted; and added " that on account of 



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1905.3 THE WEST EXD SCHOOLHOUSE. 77 

the condition of this schoolhouse, and the irregular at- 
tendance of several of the scholars, this school cannot 
be expected to appear in a good state." 

There were then "thirty scholars, twenty-three at the 
examination; twenty average attendance." In 1 85 1 the 
town began the erection of a more modern school building, 
upon the western slope of "Mystic Mount." The citizens 
of West Medford assisting by their contributions, the re- 
sult was a larger and two-storied structure with some 
pretension to architectural style. While this was build- 
ing, late in the afternoon of August 22, a destructive 
tornado or cyclone swept through a portion of the vil- 
lage, wrecking everything in its track. The old school- 
house did not escape, but was completely destroyed and 
its floor, with the seats still fastened to it, was found up- 
side down across Whitmore Brook. In its hasty flight 
it encountered a large horse chestnut tree. " Knowledge 
is power"; the tree was no match for the schoolhouse 
in the general shake-up of that fateful time, and was cut 
completely off. No scholars or teacher were injured, as 
it was vacation time, but school was to have begun 
three days later. In 1846 Miss Mary Gleason was the 
teacher, at an annual salary of $109.50. She still resides 
in old Medford, and is now known as Mrs. Otis Water- 
man; with her the writer had a pleasant interview re- 
cently. She at once recognized the scene of her early 
labors in the cause of education, when shown the origi- 
nal picture from which our illustration is copied. This, 
though not made on the spot by " our special artist" in 
years agone, was made by a member of the Historical 
Society (himself a later Brooks school boy), as the re- 
sult of information and details gathered from old resi- 
dents and schoolboys of the '40s, by the writer. It has 
found a place in the library of the Brooks school of 
today in company with those of its successors. 

The four are a commentary on the growth of the 
western section of Medford, and the progress made 
along educational lines. 



78 RECORDS. — "FULL OF YEARS" [ July, 

RECORDS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

Receipts found nt City Hall, Medford, 1905. 

Medford, July ioth, 1780. 
We the Subscribers doe Severally Inlist ourselves as 
Soldiers for the Town of Medford and Severally Promise 
to March to Clovorack or elsewhere and Join the Army 
and Doe Dutv for the Term of three Months Five 
Thousand Dollars Each After our Arrivell There as 
Witness our hands 



Felt 100 Do 300 Do 

Note 3000 
Note 3000 

150 Stockg & Hatt 



(1000) 




Andrew Floyd 


(1000) 


334, Hatt 


Isaac Green 




(1500) 


William tufts 


* 


835 


Benj. Francis 


(1000) 


500 Hatt 


Jeremiah Stewart 




(1000) 


Stephen Butterfield 




(1000) 


John Watson 




1000 


Ebenezer Tufts 
Robert Pollev 


1000 




Peter Connarv 


1000 


(3°°) 


John Le Bosquet 


1000 


1000 


Joseph Willson 


1300 


(700) 


Francis Cutter 


300 


200 Do 


Isaac Connary 




1000 Do 


Nathaniel Peirce 



Medford May 27, 1779 

Recvd of Benj Hall Ebenr Hall Selectmen of Medford 

Forty live Pounds for which I Promise to Duty as a 

Soldier in Tivertown or Else where Untill the first Day 

of July Next for the Town of Medford. 

Amos Knight 



"FULL OF YEARS. 1 ' 

By Helen T. Wild, May 26, 1905. 

AN anniversary like the one we are celebrating this 
year causes us who are " bearing the burden and 
heat of the day" to stop a moment and think of those 
who are retiring into the shadow, but who are looking 
on, interested witnesses of our doings. 

We must remember that during the last twenty 
years great changes in population have taken place, and 



1905.] "FULL OF YEARS." 79 

these elder ones are unknown to many, although they 
have the affectionate regard of those who, as little 
children, knew them in their full vigor. It has inter- 
ested some of us who have been looking up residents of 
Medford in years past to search for elderly people, na- 
tives of this city. As we have examined the records, 
tender thoughts have filled our minds as we read the 
names of those whose faces were familiar to us, and 
found it hard to realize that they have passed on. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dudley C. Hall, Mrs. Thomas S. Har- 
low and her sister, Mrs. Fitch, Miss Helen Porter, Miss 
Almira Stetson, Mrs. Matilda T. Haskins, Mrs. George 
F. Lane, Messrs. Elijah B. Smith, Cleopas Johnson, 
David Osgood Kidder and eighteen others, resident in 
Medford, have died within the last seven years, all of 
them born here more than three quarters of a century ago. 

We recognized the names of Mr. John K. Fuller of 
Dorchester, Mrs. Caroline R. (Brooks) Hayes of Wo- 
burn, Mrs. Hepsa (Hall) Bradlee of Boston, Mr. Oliver 
Wellington of Winchester, Mr. Andrew D. Blanchard of 
Melrose, and Mr. Andrew Waitt of Cambridge, who 
although no longer residents, claim Medford as their 
birthplace, and have passed beyond four score years. 

The records of the early part of the last century are 
imperfect, and it is difficult to recognize married women 
under their maiden names, but as careful a search as 
possible has resulted in finding the following twenty-six 
persons who are natives of Medford, born previous to 
June 1S30, who have lived here continuously, or for the 
greater part of their lives, and who are now residents. 

Henry Richardson, b. June 26, 1818. 

Sarah A. (Kimbail) Lincoln, b. Julv 30, 181S. 

Mary W. (Todd; Roberts, b. May 15, 1S19. 

Marv W. (Blanchard) Harlow, b. 'March I, 1S21. 

Elizabeth (Todd) Turner, b- April 18, 1S21. 

William C. Sprague, b. June 13, 1823. 

Marv M. (Cushing) Weston, b. December 27, 1825. 

Frederick D. II. Thomas, b. May 8, 1826. 

James F. Fifieid, b. September 15, 1826. 

Harriet W. (Joyce) Brown, b. October 29, 1826. 

Mary (White) Hartshorn, b. December 13, 1826. 



80 PAPERS AXD ADDRESSES, 1904-5. [July, 1005. 

J. Everett Wellington, b. April 27, 18:7. 

Mary (Gieason) Waterman, b. July 2, 1S27. 

Susan R. (Hall) Turner, b. August 29, 1S27. 

Lucy A. Peek. b. June 24, 1S2S. 

Ann C. (Drew) Jaquith, b. August 1, 182S. 

Sarah Jane Blanchard, b. January 13. 1S29. 

Lucy B. (Butters) Conery, b. February 2, 1S29. 

Susan E. (Withington) Howe, b. April 20, 1S29. 

Henry F. Moore, b. Tune 25, 1829. 

Francis A. Wait, b. July 2S, 1S29, 

John H. Haskeii, b. July 30, 1S29. 

Ellen A. Jaquith, b. August 3, 1S29. 

James B. Ewell, b. September 13, 1S29. 

Susan R. (Wheeler) Hanscomb, b. October 19, 1S29. 

Emeline A. Sparrell, February 7, 1S30. 



PAPERS AND ADDRESSES, 1904-5. 

October 17.— Opening Night "Vacation Experiences." 

Rev. H. C. DeLong. 
November 21.- — " ihe Taverns of Medford." Mr. John 

H. Hooper. 
December 19. — "Genealogy — -Heraldry." Mr. George 

S. Delano. 
January 16.— "The Whitmores of Medford and Some 

of Their Descendants," Miss Alice C. Ayres. 
February 20. — " Picturesque Medford." Illustrated. 

Mr." Will C. Eddy. 
March 20.— "Captain Isaac Hall." Mr. Hall Gleason. 
April 17.—-" The Loyalists of Medford." Miss Grace L. 

Sargent. 
May 15. — "A Tour in Mexico." Mr. George S. Delano. 

SATURDAY EVENING COURSE. 

December 3. — -" Glimpses of Hawaii." Illustrated. Miss 
A. W. Lincoln. 

January 7. — " Social Life of ye Okie Time." Mr. J. H. 
Crandon of Maiden. 

February 4. — "Reminiscences of President Lincoln." Mr. 
Wi-nslow Joyce. 

March 4.—" Medford as a Residential City." Mr. Her- 
bert A. Weitz. 




FYPES OK BUILDINGS IN WEST MEDFORD BEFORE 1870 
Jonathan Brooks Homestead. 

B ROO K5 ScHOOLHOCSE . 



Residence ok C. C. Stevens. 
Rev. Chakles Brooks' Mansion. 



Residence of Geo. F. Spauldii 
Samuel Tkfl Homester 



Si 



The Medford Historical Register. 



Vol. VIII. ' OCTOBER, 1905. No. 4. 



WEST MEDFORD IN 1870. 
By Moses Whitcher Mann. 

[Read before the Medford Historical Society, May 16, 1904.] 

THE old poet with whose writings we struggled in 
our schooldays, relates that when /Eneas told before 
Queen Dido of the siege of Troy, he remarked, " quaeque 
ipse miserrima vicii, et quorum pars magna fuiV If I 
may be allowed the old pronunciation I may also be 
allowed a free translation : " All of which I saw and part 
of which I was/' and so with so illustrious an example 
the speaker may not be deemed egotistical if, in the re- 
marks of the evening, he uses the personal pronoun 
somewhat. 

I wish to antedate the time announced on our pro- 
gram, and by the president, by some years, and ask you 
to take a backward glimpse of the " West End," for so 
was that portion of Medford once called. It is not my 
intention to take you into ancient history, but to ask you 
to view the locality, first through a schoolboy's eyes. 
The schoolboy lived in Woburn, and the big Lippincott's 
Gazetteer on the teacher's desk, informed him that his 
home town was connected with Boston by the Boston & 
Lowell Railroad and Middlesex Canal ; it might well 
have added to these, the public highways. Of these lat- 
ter, High and Woburn streets, as well as the canal and 
the railroad, passed through the West End. One hun- 
dred years before this, Medford citizens had found the 
most central or most convenient location for their meet- 
ing-house and first s.choolhouse at the foot of Mann 
Simond's Hill on High street, and in 1829 the most 
convenient situation for the West jGWschoolhouse was 



82 WEST MEDFORD IN 1870. [Oct. 

a little way up Woburn street. For fifty years the 
canal had its Landing No. 4, with its freight yard, lock 
and tavern, and some two miles of its channel in the 
West End. The railroad that had succeeded it in popu- 
lar favor also had stopping places at Symmes' Bridge, 
Medford Gates, Medford Steps and Willow Bridge, all 
in the western part of Medford. The Lowell Railroad 
was opened on June 24, 1835, an ^ is said to have been 
the first to carry passengers into Boston. In your 
schoolboy's time, it was still in its infancy, i.e., it wasn't 
twenty-one years old. It followed closely the route of 
the canal, crossing it in West Medford between the 
Steps and the river and, carefully avoiding the centres of 
population, made its way between two villages for its 
entire length. 

As the mountain wouldn't come to Mahomet, Ma- 
homet had to come to the mountain ; so in proximity to 
...the various stopping places, people began taking up a 
residence. In 1851, by the incorporation of the town of 
Winchester, Medford lost a part of its territory, mainly 
that it had acquired from Charlestown, and which was 
known as Bacon ville, and the Symmes' Bridge became 
Bacon's Bridge. Later it was called Mystic Station and 
is now known as Wedgemere. 

When a boy I used to enjoy the ten-mile ride over the 
railway to Boston on more or less frequent occasions, 
and for several months attended school in that city, go- 
ing to and fro each day. 

The panorama presented to my gaze through the rat- 
tling windows of the cars became fixed — photographed 
as it were — in my memory. 

Come with me now (in imagination, at least,) and look 
on the scene, and see the picture as it appears to my view 
tonight. We will take one of the cars of the train in 
the old station at the foot of Lowell street in Boston. 
It is one of the old timers, with low roof and black hair- 
cloth seats, with two-sashed and four-paned windows 
that rattle merrily as the train rolls none too smoothly 



1905.] WEST MEDFORD IN 1S70. 83 

over the short iron rails laid on the stone sleepers that 
were boated down from Tyngsboro on the canal. Met- 
allic letters nearly a foot high, along the outside of the 
car, inform you it is the Woburn Branch train; while 
the engine with its big smoke slack (an inverted cone) 
has" its tender piled high with wood, for coal is not as 
yet used on the railway. The bell rings and we are 
started on" our way, and after some fifteen minutes' ride 
mainly through a deep cut the train stops at a little shed, 
and the brakeman shouts, " Willow Bridge." A lone 
passenger has raised the target beside the track, and 
climbing the car steps leaves the little shed alone in its 
loneliness, for no care : taker is there, and we move on 
again. Now we are in the ancient town of Medford. 
Possibly it is afternoon, and the western sunlight illum- 
ines the turnpike and distant marshes, and the river's 
course, like a ribbon of silver, winds along in their midst. 
The ships building along the banks of the Mystic, the 
nearer brickyards, with their water-filled clay pits and 
shed-covered and perhaps smoking kilns, or the long piles 
of newly-made bricks, and the bare-footed brick makers, 
with the great piles of cordwood beside the track are in 
plain sight. 

Perhaps it is market day and the stock yards are full 
of lowing cattle and bleating sheep (just unloaded from 
the long trains that have come down from New Hamp- 
shire) or out on the highway a cloud of dust marks the 
passing of a drove toward Cambridge or Woburn. All 
this we see near Willow 7 Bridge. It must not be under- 
stood that any bridge there was constructed of willow. 
The road to West Cambridge crossed the railway by a 
wooden bridge of more durable material, but large wil- 
low trees along the borders of Winter Brook evidently 
united with the bridge in suggesting a name for the rail- 
way station, which, though still on the Medford side of 
the line, is now called North Somerville. After passing 
the cattle yards a road might be seen passing below the 
track, and on the left toward the setting sun, loomed up 



84 WEST MEDFORD IN 1S70. [Oct. 

the three-story hotel called the Somerville House. 
Farther away at the top of Quarry Hill was the old 
Powder House, a relic of long ago when the Medford 
people went thither for their grist to be ground — for it 
was once a windmill tower. Three buildings crowned 
the top of Walnut Tree Hill, as it was formerly called, 
the beginning of Tufts College; and the depot across 
the track, as was also the college site, became known as 
College Hill. 

Perhaps we have waited a few years and taken 
another train, and our picture has grown and improved 
some. We may be seated in new cars, the first of the 
monitor top, the metallic letters have been succeeded by 
painted ones, the hair-cloth seats by plush, and the 
windows with glass of larger size. The seat backs are 
locked securely, so none can be turned by passengers, 
and the stoves' have an iron strap around them to hold 
them to the car floor and their doors are like a surly 
dog — well chained up; and not without reason. It is 
before the days of steam or air brakes, but some inven- 
tive genius has equipped, the train with a system of 
levers, wire ropes and pulleys, by which the engine driver 
can apply the brakes to the wheels of an entire train 
and bring it to a sudden standstill. Sometimes it was 
sudden, and passengers vacated their seats involuntarily, 
or the stove doors would fly open, scattering hot coals 
and ashes generously. 

Just back from College Hill on the right, sheltered 
by the trees and hedges, was, and still is, the Stearns 
residence. With its brick windmill tower it was an 
attractive sight; to which was added the interest of its 
connection with another railway, the " underground 
railroad " of ante-bellum days. 

Passing the old station of Medford Steps with its long 
stairway — this was on the right hand — and under a 
bridge now removed, and emerging from the railway 
cut, the most noticeable object was the First Parish 
Church, with its several storied steeple, one of which 



1905.] WEST MBDFORD IN 1S70. 85 

contained the original town clock presented by Mr. 
Brooks, while higher up was the bell cast by Paul 
Revere. At this time it will lack the ornamental finish 
given later by the Toughs (college boys), that of a black 
stovepipe hat securely fastened on the three-pronged 
lightning rod that surmounted the top story of the 
steeple. Below the meeting-house the terraced gardens 
of the Bigelow estate sloped away from High street to 
the mouth of Meetinghouse Brook, while scattered along 
the road were the old-fashioned houses, some now de- 
molished, among them that of Parson Turell, others re- 
modeled and still remaining. 

As the train moved along the view of these was 
quickly broken by the seamed and scarred promontory 
of Rock Hill, where once was the home of Nanepashe- 
mit, and which commanded a view of the river in either 
direction. No bridge spanned the river at Auburn 
. street as now, but the disused canal, innocent of water, 
was plainly visible before reaching the loop in the river 
near' the mouth of Whit more Brook, where once a ship 
was built and launched. Scattered here and there on 
the gentle slope from High street to the river, and on 
the steeper side of Mystic Hill were some fifty dwellings 
in 1870, among which the Brooks schoolhouse stood, 
sharply out as a central figure. These formed the bulk 
of the West End — the West Medford of 1S70. 

To the left of the high embankment in which is the 
railway arch across the Mystic, was a stretch of marsh 
crossed by the embankments of the old canal, and be- 
yond these, the tall, graceful chimney of the pumping 
station of the Charlestown Water Works, then just com- 
pleted, but now disused. Just here Menotomy River 
(now degenerated into Alewife Brook), finishes its slug- 
gish course from Fresh Pond in Cambridge to the Mys- 
tic, and here it was that Governor Winthrop once spent 
an October night alone (in 1631), an uninvited guest 
in the vacant dwelling of Sagamore John. Still looking 
out from the car window to the left, we would see the 



86 WEST MEDFORD IN /S70. [Oct. 

bath houses on the river's bank, for the waters of the 
Mystic were clearer then than in later years ; the fish 
were abundant, for a little farther up stream were the 
nets of the fishermen stretched across the river to the 
opposite bank in Somerville. Drawn up on the Med- 
.ford side, perchance, might be the fishers' boats, for here 
was Landing No. 4 of the old canal days. An enor- 
mous willow, over four feet in diameter, and several 
sycamores shaded the spot, while the great stone walls 
of the canal lock, overrun with blackberry vines and 
filled with a growth of bushes, told the story of the pass- 
ing of the old waterway. This was accentuated by the 
slowly decaying timbers of the aqueduct across the river, 
from whose supporting braces hung the sedge grass left 
by the flood tide. Empty for nearly twenty years, it had 
been exposed to the decaying forces of nature and it 
was a picturesque ruin. Beyond this, a broad plain (its 
nearer edge having been excavated over a century 
earlier in the manufacture of bricks), sloping slightly 
away, revealed the course of the Mystic, which, stretch- 
ing out like an encircling arm with its hand holding a 
little island, reached the lower lake just above Wear 
Bridge. A bracelet for the wrist was formed by the 
Wood's dam. This though useful, was n't considered 
either ornamental or desirable by the devotees of boat- 
ing ; a little later it was the scene of angry dispute and 
destructive visitation, and finally the subject of litigation, 
resulting adversely to the occupants of the picturesque 
and willow shaded mill on the Menotomy side. 

As we ride, all this flits by in less time than it takes 
to tell it, unless perchance the train is one of the accom- 
modation kind, making thirteen stops in ten miles. It 
stops and leaves the cars stretched across High street. 
This station was formerly called " Medford Gates," as it- 
was then as now at a grade crossing. As a protective 
measure, gates consisting of long planks drawn horizon- 
tally from a box on either side of the street, telescoped 
together beside the track, and barred the passage of 



1905.] WEST MED FORI) IN 1S70. ST 

teams during the passage of trains. These have fallen 
into disuse and are removed, but a man is stationed with 
a red flag to guard the crossing. We notice that he has 
lost an arm, the result of an accident while in the com- 
pany's service some years before. The little station oc- 
cupies the acute angle between High street and the 
tracks, and here we alight. Looking squarely away 
down the road, we see the Usher Bridge and the Raw- 
son farm on " Goat Acre," while following High street 
we see the open tower of the Town Hall, and the 
clustering church spires of Arlington, and remember 
that one April morning, nearly a century before, Paul 
Revere hurried along this same road to Menotomy and 
Lexington. 

To the left, and across the street stood the eagle- 
crowned flagstaff, that some years before used to stand 
on Main street near Medford Square, and earlier still 
was a mast in some Medford ship. Enclosed by a rough 
picket fence, which was painted yellow, it was near to 
the well, later forgotten, into whose covering some one 
broke a few years ago. Back of this was the semi- 
nary building now known as Mystic Hall. Two rows 
of poplar trees bordered a walk across the field to the 
Mystic Mansion, erstwhile the Medford almshouse. 
Westward from the seminary was the three-story resi- 
dence of Mr. Smith, with its tower with windows of 
colored glass, and the hundred-foot barn beyond. These 
were destroyed in various incendiary fires, for a time 
so numerous in Medford. 

Across High street and extending to the shores of 
Medford pond, and off across the line into Winchester, 
lay the estate of Mr. Brooks, then as now a place of 
beauty. At that time two great black walnut trees 
reared their stately forms skyward, near the old brick 
wall built by Pomp, the slave; for others beside Colonel 
Royall had slaves in Medford in the old colonial days. 
There is now but one of these trees, and a rare speci- 
men of its kind. It marks the location of the old 



88 WEST MED FORD IN i$;o. [Oct. 

mansion of "colony times, when we were under the king." 
From a point in the road just beyond, Bunker Hill 
monument could once be seen. For some days during 
my Boston school attendance 1 watched the removal of 
a barn or shop from the vicinity of the canal landing, 
across the railroad to the summit of Mystic Hill (to 
which the flagstaff has been removed, and there re- 
mains). This building was there remodelled, and made 
into a dwelling, with a four-story tower. Years later it 
was partially burned, and in its second alteration and 
removal lost the two upper stories of its tower, and is 
not now the conspicuous object it was in the seventies. 

And now having shown you the picture of the West 
End as the schoolboy saw it, let me say something of 
the West Meclford of the early seventies, as the boy, 
then a young man, observed it. 

The " Hillside " was unknown, as the term began to be 
applied some sixteen years later, when the name of Med- 
ford Steps was discontinued by the railway company. 
Only two houses were in that section, and but one, that 
of Mr. Perkins on Winthrop street, near the reservoir, 
was occupied. A little later Mr. C. C. Stevens moved 
into the other, just completed on North street His 
nearest neighbor was Billy Hamilton, often called the 
wild Irishman, but his home, as well as that of Bernard 
Born, the engineer at the water works, was within the 
limits of Somerville. At that time (May, i S70,) there were 
but eighteen houses west of the railway. Of these 
eighteen the mansion and farm houses, one house 
on Canal street, belonging to Edward Brooks, and two 
houses owned by the railway company, occupied by 
Rueben Willey the station agent, and Daniel Kelley, 
the flagman, formed a part. On Bower street were the 
residences of Horace A. Breed and Henry T. Wood, 
while near the centre of the plain was the dwelling of 
George Spaulding, which, with its cruciform shape and 
two-story cupola, was a noticeable object, and sometimes 
called the steamboat house. The home and two smaller 



1905.] WEST MED FORD IN iSyo. 89 

houses of Gilbert Lincoln, and the newly built house of 
Florist Duane completed the number not included in the 
" Smith estate." This comprised the territory lying be- 
tween High street, the railroad and the river, with a 
small portion across the track, adjoining Canal street. 
Some twenty years before it had been laid out in lots, 
and given the name of " Brooklands," which name, how- 
ever, had' not clung to it. Possibly it blew away in the 
tornado of August, 1851, and like some more tangible 
objects was lost to general knowledge. 

Had I in 1S70 any intimation that in this year of 
grace, 1904, I would have been expected to tell the as- 
sembled friends about "West Medford in 1S70," I would 
have taken a more careful and broader outlook and made 
specific preparation for the same. 

It seems a little curious, however, that the present 
occasion should so nearly mark the anniversary of my 
first actual visit to the little village. On the third Mon- 
day evening in May, I met by appointment one of the 
new owners of the Smith estate at the railway station 
and took with him a hasty view of their recent purchase. 

Coming from Woburn by the inward train, I had a 
half hour to spare ere the outward train arrived. This 
I improved by strolling about the village, making the 
schoolhouse my objective point. Two houses on Auburn 
street and two more on Allston, and all in the rear of 
the school were nearly completed : these naturally came 
in for a share in my observation. On meeting my ap- 
pointee, we at once repaired to the " Mansion " on 
Canal street. Sixteen years before, the schoolboy had 
been interested in the alterations and repairs then being 
made upon it; especially in the great four-panecl 
windows — then a novelty — and the gilt letters over 
the western door, that informed the passers that it was 
the " Mystic Mansion." Built in 18 12 by the town of 
Medford, it was for forty years the almshouse. Sold by 
the town, and remodelled in '54, it was for a few years 
one of the " Mystic Hall Seminary " buildings, and after 



90 WEST MED FORD IN 1870. [Oct. 

the seminary's transfer to Washington it was occupied by 
various parties, but vacant at the time of our visit. A 
long greenhouse, in a ruinous state, occupied the corner 
of the lot, where once stood the district schoolhouse; 
while giant elm and willow trees stood on either side 
of the driveway, and shaded grounds and street alike. 

The various outbuildings gave abundant evidence of 
neglect, and the glamour of romantic association was dis- 
pelled on entering the classic halls of the mansion. A 
hasty survey of its interior was followed by a walk across 
the held to the old " Canal Tavern," which with three 
dwellings on Canal street and the seminary building, 
made up the eighteen houses I have named. A few days 
later (May 26), as the result of an interview with all the 
proprietors, the "Smith estate" came under my superin- 
tendence, and soon after, taking up my abode in one of 
their houses, I became a resident and citizen of Medford. 

In the seminary building, in what was once known as 
Everett Hall, Ellis Pitcher kept a grocery; selling out 
that spring to Sawyer & Parmenter, and they, soon 
after, to J. E. Ober, who then had a milk route there. 
No other store of any kind was kept in the West End, 
but a Mr. Reed, who resided on Allston street (in the 
house recently burned), sold dry goods from a wagon 
and supplied such as came to his house for them. 

The postoffice (established in 1852) was, in '69, kept 
by Mr. Pitcher, who was in June of '70 succeeded by 
Mr, Willey ; and for ten years the railroad station housed 
it. Six houses on Woburn street and six more on Pur- 
chase street formed the outlying district called Brier- 
ville. This name must have flown also, as 1 haven't 
heard it so called for thirty years. Through this sec- 
tion, some eighteen years before, w r as begun the Stone- 
ham Branch Railroad. The iron rails were never laid, 
nor did the " iron horse " come ; and there were those that 
said that Medford people knew not " a good thing " etc., 
and that, fearing the loss of the depot in Medford Square 
as a terminal, they gave little support to the enterprise. 



1905.] WEST ME I) FORD IX 1S70. 91 

However this may be, the owner and resident who re- 
moved his house from the corner of High and A listen 
streets to Purchase street had some faith in it, and 
though requiring a bridge across the intervening valley 
and wailing for thirty years, the occupants are now ac- 
commodated by the frequent passing of the electric car 
with the pneumatic whistle. 

The rest of the village of '70 was grouped around the 
Brooks school building, whose ample grounds speak 
well for the foresight of the town of '67. This portion 
had been laid out in lots, and streets opened in 1S45, 
and in nine years thirty-five dwellings had been erected. 
These are readily distinguished today. The Usher 
residence, now like ancient Gaul- — divided into three 
parts — and removed, occupied the site of the brick and 
stone building bearing his name; and v;as surrounded 
by numerous trees, of which the maples on Playstead 
Road are a part. The great spreading elm (a little in 
the street to be sure, but a thing of beauty), had not yet- 
been ruthlessly removed ; while the big horse chestnut, 
wrenched and torn by the tornado of '51, still stood at 
the end of Warren street. The old Usher house, de- 
crepit with years, was on the present postofhee site, as 
was a little one-room building, in which a variety store 
had once been kept. Beside this was Captain Wyatt's 
residence, which, enlarged a little, still remains, till re- 
cently the residence of his grandson, William Cheney. 
The " Gamage corner" had not begun to take on the 
various additions and alterations, for neither Chinese 
nor yet " Mikado laundry" had arrived. Policeman 
Richardson had not yet come to engage in the livery 
business, which for over thirty years has been a stable 
one, though conducted by several proprietors. 

Edward Shaw with his express came not till '71, nor 
was he located beside Whitmore Brook till five years 
later. Cunningham' s omnibus made no trips to Med- 
ford Square, nor did, indeed, till '76, while the bobtail 
car which succeeded the omnibus would at that day have 
been deemed a wild enterprise. 



92 WEST MEDFORD IN 1870. [Oct. 

Purchase street (now Winthrop), had been open some 
twenty-five years, and Woburn street, once the main 
road to Boston, was but little used, as the northern 
travel came not up Marm Simond's Hill. Sugar Loaf 
Hill had not been cut out so widely, nor yet by the ac- 
tion of the stone-crusher granulated and spread on Med- 
ford streets, to sweeten the experiences of travel. Pur- 
chase street was Medford's " Via Dolorosa " — the way to 
the almshouse and the silent city of the dead. Mystic 
Hill, rocky and bare at its top, was beginning to be in- 
vaded by dwellers, but they were few and far apart. 
Nestled in a little hollow on its western slope was a 
pond, whose denizens in " the good old summer time " 
made night melodious, informing the listener that 
"Paddy got drunk — got drunk." Shaded by willows, 
and surrounded by a tangled growth (possibly suggest- 
ing the name of Brierville), its waters found a way into 
Whitmore Brook. The stone tower on Hastings Heights, 
as we call the hill now, overlooks the place ; while the 
site of the pond is surrounded with houses, the homes 
of recent comers and residents. 

In 1870, water was introduced into Medford from 
Spot Pond, and building operations commenced upon 
the long vacant Smith estate, which for some years was 
called by some of the hill dwellers the " Flats." Possi- 
bly they had forgotten, or, perhaps, never knew, that 
years before, their location was rather contemptuously 
called by some of their townsmen the " Fag-ejid" 

Of the residents of the West End in 1870 a few words 
will not be out of place. I shall speak only of such as 
came more particularly under my notice. Coming to 
the village with the intention of there making my home, 
the Sabbath gathering of the people attracted my atten- 
tion. This was held in Mystic Hall (in the old semi- 
nary building), and was under the auspices of the 
West Medford Christian Union (a non-sectarian organ- 
ization), as no church of any order then existed in West 
Medford. 



19Q5O WEST MED FORD IN 1870. 93 

On my first home Sabbath, with the good lady whom 
a few weeks before I had taken for better or for worse 
(I've found her better), we arrived early at Mystic Hall, 
and taking a back seat, instead of being observed of 
all observers, we had an opportunity to see some of our 
new neighbors as they assembled. Miss Addie Morss 
served as organist and played the "Nuns' Prayer" as a 
voluntary,, and accompanied the congregational singing. 
A French gentleman, the Rev. Louis Charpiot, was the 
clergyman. He was of the Trinitarian Congregational 
order, and had but recently begun preaching in West 
Medford, being employed on the editorial staff of the 
Nation then published by Mr. Usher, who in the spring 
of 71 established the Medford Joitrnal, since which time 
Medford has never been without a weekly paper. 
He had been preceded by Rev. M. B. Chapman, who 
had served for two years. Mr. Chapman was a Metho- 
dist, and a student in Boston University, and boarded 
with Mrs. G. A. Spaulding. He was even then de- 
scribed as a brilliant preacher and elicited the remark 
from a shrewd observer, " I want to hear him again and 
see if he had all his powder in one gun." Mr. Chap- 
man married while at West Medford, and one day just 
previous, said to Mrs. Spaulding, " When I return I shall 
bring a lady with me. I think a great deal of her, I want 
you to, also." He is now known as Dr. Chapman and 
is one of the professors in Boston University. 

Mr. Charpiot preached on Sabbath morning and even- 
ing ; sometimes a lecture on current events was sub- 
stituted for the evening sermon. I well remember his 
review of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, and his biting- 
sarcasm on " Napoleon the little." Mr. Charpiot resigned 
in September of '71, and after supplies by various clergy- 
men, the Rev. W. E. Huntington was secured for the 
rest of the year. A young man of rare promise, his ser- 
vices were greatly enjoyed. He was the last of the 
Christian Union preachers and was of the Methodist 
Episcopal order. After serving the largest churches of 



94 WEST MED FORD IN jS 7 o. [Oct. 

his denomination in Boston and Newton, he entered 
into educational work, and is now the president of Bos- 
ton University. Some of the church-going residents of 
the village continued their attendance at the churches in 
Medford, but the newer arrivals found it inconvenient to 
do so, and these with the more aged found the village 
service attractive, while the Mystic Sabbath School 
which had been organized a few years earlier, and two 
years later became Congregational, was well attended by 
the children and youth. 

The onlv social organization of mv knowledge was 
the West Medford Lyceum and Library Association, 
which was incorporated in 1S52. During the winter of 
'70-71 it had a course of lectures in Mystic Hall, as also 
in previous seasons. Since then the society has had 
but irregular meetings, though still legally, existent. 
What remained of its library was a few years ago placed 
in the Brooks School Library, where it now remains. 
George G. Lincoln was its secretary and Herbert Magoun 
its treasurer. 

The only business enterprises in West Medford in 
1870 were the granite works of R. K. Carpenter, the 
building business of John H. Norton and that of John 
H. Duane, the florist. It could hardly be expected that 
a little village of less than one hundred dwellings, many 
of whose occupants were men of leisure, merchants, 
brokers, retired clergymen, bookkeepers and artisans 
whose places of employment were in Boston, would 
abound in factories. In 1872, a mattress factory was 
built on Auburn street, and operated by A. J. Kittredge 
for a short time, when it was destroyed by fire. In those 
days a good way to observe the citizens of the village 
was to take position near the railway station about train 
time, which not being as frequent as in later years would 
assemble the villagers in compact gathering. To the 
earlier trains would come Mr. Lothropfrom his home on 
Purchase street, the Wilson brothers, whose homes have 
just been removed to make room for the new church, 



1905.3 WEST 'ME D.FORD IN 1870. 95 

William McLean and Franz Diebold, Franz Gockeritz 
and Thomas Osborn and Charles Hippisley, the printers, 
John Pitman, the fat and jolly boot maker, who kept 
the old curiosity shop in Brattle street, with his son Tom, 
and others also. A 'little later, N. T. Merritt, S. S. 
Leavitt, George M. Ritchie, Herbert Magoun, Martin 
Nolte, Deacon H. L. Barnes, Nathan Brown, J. H. 
Hatch, Rodney Tay, C. A. T. Bloom, George Lincoln 
and the Lanes. The older Mr. Lane often came in a 
four-wheeled vehicle, like himself solid and stibstantiaL 
Later trains were taken by Commordore Hastings, D. A. 
Gleason, Edward Hall, the veteran auctioneer, J. W. 
Watts, the three Hallowell brothers, Ira Ackerman, 
W. C. Craig, J. P. Richardson, C. M. Barrett, John B. 
Hatch, Nathan Bridge and Luther Farwell ; while George 
Spaulding, the Traveller man, H. T. Wood and Horace 
A. Breed would come from their homes beyond the rail- 
road. A little later the Brooks carriages would come 
down from the Elms or the stone house on the hill, 
or Mr. Usher, a tall and commanding personage in flow- 
ing cloak and tall silk hat, would stroll leisurely out from 
among the trees about his house. I had almost forgot- 
ten one who came a little later than myself, but still an 
early dweller then — David H. Brown, our worthy presi- 
dent. Samuel Teele, Sr., lived in his house on High 
street. Gilbert Lincoln and J. M. Brock were carpen- 
ters by trade as was also J. H. Norton, who employed 
a number of men. William Cheney and Samuel Teele 
were of the same trade. Captain Wyatt, one of the 
master mechanics of the canal, was a familiar figure 
upon the street, though bowed upon his long staff by the 
weight of ninety years. Albert Samson lived on Canal 
street and was bookkeeper for Foster & Co ; and Thomas 
Martin, who set out many of the trees on Grove street 
and built many cellars, lived in the old Canal House. 
Patrick Byron was the former superintendent of the 
Gorham Brooks estate, Dennis Harrigan, the section 
master of the railroad. A. B. Morss lived near Woburn 
street and later printed the CJironicle. 



96 WEST MED FORD IN 1870. [Oct. 

Rev. Charles Brooks, the able historian of Medford, 
Rev. D. A. Wasson, the radical preacher, Abner J. 
Phipps of the Board of Education, and Jefferson Has- 
call, d.d., were then also residents. Mr. Cross was the 
master at the Brooks school and Miss Ellen Lane one 
of the teachers. Of the women of the village I can say 
but little, but must allude to Miss Lucy Ann Brooks 
and Mrs. Usher, each in their own way rich in good 
works, and " Auntie " Cheney, a veritable mother in 
Israel. 

A little later comers were B. C. Leonard, H. B. Cot- 
tage, Gardner Chapin, Herman Judkins, and others whom 
time forbids to mention. 

1S72 marked the organization of churches, and the 
call for more school accommodations, while a few fires 
emphasized the need of something more than the an- 
cient hose carnage for protection. New dwellings and 
churches were built, new residents came, stores were 
opened, and the growing village demanded new avenues 
of travel. The solid stone piers and abutments of the 
canal viaduct invited Boston avenue, while Auburn street 
put up a rival claim. The result was that the river was 
crossed in both places, opening the Llillside and Cotting 
street districts. Not a rapid, but a healthy growth has 
marked the section I have described and so gradually 
that only the flight of time brings it vividly to notice. 

On the slope of the Hillside and on the level plain 
trees planted by private munificence and public expense 
(since Arbor Day obtained recognition) are rapidly add- 
ing shade and beauty to the growing section. The same 
giant sycamores stand guard before the Jonathan Brooks 
homestead, and reach out their arms in benediction 
upon the passers, while at Mystic street the vista of 
beauty seen as I looked all four ways in '70 is grown 
more beautiful by the lapse of years. 

The city of Medford is estimated to have had in Janu- 
ary, 1904, a population of 21,500, with number of voters 
registered, 3,659 ; or six inhabitants to one voter. 



1905.] WEST MED FORD IN 1870. 97 

Ward Six, west of A list on street and Hillside, west of 
railroad, 6S1 voters. 6X681—4,086. 

Part of Ward Three, east of Allston street and west 
of Meetinghouse Brook and up Winthrop street (to con- 
form to West Medford of '70), contains about 120 
houses. If averaging five residents, would add 600 to 
4,086=4,686. 

In 1870 there were 13+10=23 houses on High street, 
between Meetinghouse Brook and Lowell Railroad ; 
26+28 : =54 on side streets and 20 west of railroad, mak- 
ing 97. If averaging six occupants, would give a total 
population of 582. As there was but one of the Smith 
estate houses occupied, and that by only two persons, it is 
fair to presume that the population in '70 was about 500. 
Calling the present estimated population of the same area 
4,500, the rate of increase is as nine to o?ie. 

Without wearying my audience with any further array 
of statistics, I will only say that the increase in every 
thing that goes to make up the civil, religious and edu- 
cational, as well as the social, economic, and generally 
comfortable features of life, have kept pace with the 
growth alluded to. 

And now let me say in closing, thanking you for your 
patient hearing, and deeming it an honor to have the 
opportunity of thus presenting this to you, that as I 
have read these names, I am reminded that while a few 
still remain, some have removed, while many have joined 
the great majority and rest from their labors. Each, in 
his way, bore some part in making the West End what 
it is. Last Sunday I ascended the stone tower on I last- 
ing Heights, and surveyed a scene of rare beauty, one 
section of a city of homes that has arisen in the average 
length of a human life. I thought of the village to 
which I came thirty-four years ago today, and rejoiced 
that it has been my lot to live therein, to know some- 
thing of its people, to build some of its dwellings and 
one of its churches, and to be a citizen of Medford — "a 
citizen of no mean city." 



OS 



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100 [Oct. 

CAPTAIN ISAAC HALL. 
By Hall Gleason. 

[Read before the Medford Historical Society, March 20, 1905.] 

TSAAC HALL, son of Andrew and Abigail (Walker) 
JL Hall, was born at Medford, January 24, 1739, in the 
house now standing at the corner of High street and 
Bradlee road. 

His father died when he was eleven years of age, and 
he continued to live there with his mother, who took the 
estate as part of her dower. The estate is described as 
bounded southerly by the country road, westerly on 
Henry Fowle's land, easterly on land of Thomas Sea- 
comb and Joseph Thompson, Thompson was a royal- 
ist at the time of the revolution and his estate was con- 
fiscated by the state and sold to Thomas Patten. The 
dower estate is also described in a later deed from Ben- 
jamin Hall, who acquired the property, to Ebenezer 
Hall, his brother, who bought of him the estate lately 
owned by Mrs. Thomas S. Harlow. In this deed the 
five foot passageway between the houses, as it now 
exists, is described. 

Isaac was employed by his brother, Benjamin Hall, a 
distiller, until January 27, 1775, when he was taken into 
partnership, and we find a record of the purchase of a 
distillery from J no. Dexter by the firm. 

October 8, 1761, Isaac was married to Abigail, daugh- 
ter of Ebenezer and Sarah (Cutter) Cutter of Medford, 
and he and his bride, lived with the widowed mother 
until her death in 1785, in the dower house, and here 
eight children were born to them. In the administra- 
tion of the widow's estate are these items. 

"With rent of her dower 21 years rec d of Isaac Hall 
,£544-17-0." 

and 

" Pd. Isaac Hall for boarding widow 21 years, and 
nursing, and repairs on house, being the whole time of 
her widowhood, ,£649-17-2." 



,1905.] CAPTAIN ISAAC HALL. 101 

Isaac was the captain of the Medford Minute Men; 
and when the storm of war which had been gathering 
broke at last, the men of Medford were among the first 
to respond and perform their share in the War for Inde- 
pendence. Paul Revere in his personal narrative tells 
how he had crossed the river, passing the British man- 
of-war Somerset; had mounted Deacon Larkin's horse 
and started on his ride, intending to pass over Charles- 
town Neck and over through Cambridge. Near what 
is now Sullivan Square he met two British officers who 
tried to stop him. He turned and pushed for the Med- 
ford road, and got clear of them. He says, " I went 
through Medford over the bridge and up to Menotomy. 
In Medford I waked the Captain of the Minute Men, 
and after that, I alarmed almost every house till I got to 
Lexington." 

Miss Helen T. Wild in her History of Medford in the 
Revolution says, " Capt n Hall and his company marched 
to Lexington and there joined Capt n John Brooks and 
his Reading company .... The combined companies 
met the British at Merriam's Corner and followed them 
to Charlestown Ferry, continuing their fire until the last 
of the troops had embarked." The Medford company 
was in the 37th Mass. Regiment, commanded by Col. 
Thos. Gardner. In the account of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill in his Siege of Boston, Frothingham says, " After 
the British landed, this regiment (Gardner's) was sta- 
tioned in the road leading to Lechmere's Point, and late 
in the day was ordered to Charlestown. On arriving at 
Bunker Hill, General Putnam ordered part of it to assist 
in throwing up defences commenced at this place. One 
company (Harris') went to the rail fence. The greater 
part under the lead of their colonel on the third attack 
advanced towards the redoubt On the way, Colonel 
Gardner was struck by a ball, which inflicted a mortal 
wound." The loss of the regiment in this battle was six 
killed, seven wounded. 

September 1, 1775, Isaac Hall was discharged to or- 



102 CAPTAIN ISAAC HALL. [Oct. 

ganize another company of men from Medford, Stone- 
ham and other adjoining towns. With this company 
he marched to Dorchester Heights in March, 1776. 
During 1775 anc ^ 1 77& he acted as commissary for the 
troops that were quartered here. His business affairs 
had evidently suffered from his absence on military 
duties. He and his brothers also lost large sums from 
furnishing the government with rum and other medical 
and military supplies, and receiving payment in a con- 
stantly depreciating currency. In 177S he was assessed 
for a tax of about ^"30 in gold. In 17S9, the year of his 
death, his tax had decreased to £4 in currency. In 1787 
he sold his distillery to his brother Eben r , and all that 
was not conveyed to him he sold to J. C Jones. In 
August, 1789, he disposed of the remainder of his prop- 
erty to Eben r . 

He took an active part in town affairs, and served as 
a town officer in different capacities from 1765 to 1789,' 
the year of his death. He held, at different times, the 
office of engine-man, wood corder, salt-measurer, asses- 
sor, and fire-warden. At a town meeting held in May, 
1789, it was "voted to petition the General Court for a 
•lottery, to widen the bridge and pave the market place, 
so called." Isaac Hall was appointed a member of the 
committee. 

Among his friends was Col. Isaac Royal, who " halted 
between two opinions respecting the revolution, until 
the cannonading at Lexington drove him to Newbury- 
port and then to Halifax." In Brooks' history of Med- 
ford is an account of an examination respecting the 
political behavior of Colonel Royal. Among the per- 
sons examined was Captain ' Isaac Hall, who declared: 
" That the winter before said battle (Lexington) he went 
to settle accounts with said Royal at his house ; and 
that said Royal showed him his arms and accoutrements 
(which were in very good order), and told him that he 
determined to stand for his country," etc. 

Isaac Hall died November 24, 1789. A sword, said 



1905.] CAPTAIN ISAAC HALL. 103 

to be the one he carried at Lexington and Bunker Hill, 
is in the possession of Jas. L. Hall of Kingston, Mass. 
It was left him by Mrs. Susan M. Pitch, who received 
it from her grandfather, Eben r Hall, a brother of Isaac. 

The tablet is not intended to perpetuate any remark- 
able military achievements of valor of Captain Isaac 
Hall, though he performed his part in those heroic con- 
tests which gave confidence to the colonists in their 
resistance to oppression. It is more that Medford de- 
sires to honor all the men who helped her to take so 
important share in the early battles of the war which 
gave birth to the nation, and which has meant freedom 
for the whole English speaking race. 



MANNING FRANCIS. 

Mr. Charles Francis Darling of Worcester has found 
in the Connecticut Records the marriage of Manning 
Francis and Sarah Ginnings at Windham, April i, 1772. 
Eight children were born to them between 1773 and 
1800, inclusive. 

Manning was the son of John and Deborah, of Med- 
ford, born November 20, 1748. This does not accord 
with Medford Historical Register, vol. 8, page 39. 
There was another child, Manning, in this family, born 
January 3, 1747; died September 6, 1748. 

Manning Francis served as express conductor in the 
Revolution. See Connecticut Revolutionary Records, 
page 628. All trace of him is lost in Windham records 
after 1808. The name Francis is also found in the 
records of Canterbury, Conn. 



104 [Oct. 

THE TWO HUNDRED SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY. 

In June, 1905, the two hundred seventy-fifth birthday 
of Medford was celebrated with appropriate civic, literary 
and religious ceremonies. All historic sites were duly 
designated and the markers remain to assist the pilgrim 
in search of ancient lore. The buildings in all parts of 
the city were beautifully decorated, and the square was 
bright ' with bunting by day, and aflame with many 
electric lights by night. 

On June 14, flag day, the Massachusetts Sons of the 
Revolution placed on the grounds belonging to the 
house (standing today almost unchanged) where Captain 
Isaac Hall of the Medford minute men lived, a bronze 
tablet upon a boulder of Medford granite. The tablet 
was unveiled by Vernon Rowland Hall, 2d, the youngest 
male representative of the family of Hall in the city, and 
bears the following inscription : — 

OX THIS SITE LIVED 

CAPTAIN ISAAC HALL 

WHO COMMANDED THE MEDFORD MINUTE MEN 

AT LEXINGTON AND BUNKER HILL 

PAUL REVERE STOPPED HERE 

ON HIS MEMORABLE RIDE TO CONCORD APRIL lS-19, 1775 

TO WARN CAPTAIN HALL 

THAT THE BRITISH SOLDIERS WERE ON THE MARCH. 



PLACED BY THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY 

SONS OF THE REVOLUTION 

JUNE 14, I905 

June 15, the Opera House was the scene of a most 
inspiring service. An oration was delivered by Rev. 
Nehemiah Boynton of Brooklyn, N. Y., and Hon. Wil- 
liam Everett, a descendant of the Brooks family of Med- 
ford, recited an original poem. The Tufts College Choir 
furnished the vocal music. Mr. David H. Brown, Presi- 
dent of the Medford Historical Society, and Hon. M. F. 
Dwyer, Mayor, spoke appropriate words of welcome, 
Judge William dishing Wait presiding. 

Thursday evening the armory presented a scene of 



1905.] THE 27 o Til ANNIVERSARY. 105 

beauty and festivity which will be long remembered by 
the five hundred men and women who were privileged 
to be present at the banquet which was given there. 

Patriotic exercises by the schools of the city were held 
on Friday, June 16. It is to be regretted that no hall 
was large enough to accommodate audiences of children 
of larger growth, as the. interesting programs were pre- 
sented with great enthusiasm by the pupils. The ex- 
hibitions of manual work at the high school building 
were a revelation to those unacquainted with modern 
methods of education. 

Friday afternoon the Massachusetts Sons of the Amer- 
ican Revolution dedicated a tablet placed on the Savings 
Bank building, in honor of Governor John Brooks. It 
bears the inscription : — 

OX THIS SITE STOOD THE HOUSE OF 
BORN 1752 JOHN BROOKS DIED 1S25 

DISTINGUISHED CITIZEN, PHYSICIAN, PATRIOT 
CAPTAIN AN*D MAJOR I775-1776 LIEUTENANT COLONEL 1776-1783 

IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

BRIGADIER GENERAL I792-I796 UNITED STATES ARMY 

MAJOR GENERAL 17S6-I796 ADJUTANT GENERAL 1813-1816 

MASSACHUSETTS MILITIA 

GOVERNOR OP" THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

1816-1S23 

HONORARY A.M., M.D., AND LL.D., OVERSEER 

HARVARD COLLEGE 



THIS TABLET PLACED BY 
THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

*9°5 

A water carnival on Mystic Lake, Friday evening, 
attracted a large gathering to witness the fairy-like dis- 
play. On Saturday, a grand parade of the military, 
civic and industrial departments of the city, with visit- 
ing organizations and floats representing the mercantile 
interests of the city was the attraction of the morning. 
Athletic sports, an illumination and a band concert in 
the evening rounded out the day's festival. 

All through the celebration at the Royall Mouse, 



106 THE 2 7 5 TH AN XI VER SA R 1 '. 



[Oct. 



the Historical Rcoms and the Public Library the per- 
manent historical collections were augmented by val- 
uable loans for the occasion. At the Royall House, 
articles of furniture, china and relics of colonial days 
were arranged in such a way that they seemed the 
ordinary furnishings of a pre-revolutionary mansion. 
At the Historical Rooms the exhibit was more local, 
and ancient silver, family relics, and portraits of men 
of the past generation were of great interest to those 
whose youth was spent in our old town. At the Library, 
books and pictures, by Medford residents, and portraits 
were shown. 

The Medford Mercury published a souvenir called 
" Medford, Past and Present," to which many students 
of local history contributed. 

On Sunday, June iS, the celebration closed with 
special exercises at all the churches, and two grand 
services of song, one at the Mystic Church, and the 
other at the Opera House. 

The week was one of good fellowship and happy re- 
unions of families and friends long parted. The citizens 
co-operated in making the city beautiful with harmonious 
decorations; many strangers, as well as former residents, 
were in the city, and through the whole gala time not 
an arrest was made, no disturbance was reported, nor 
accident happened to mar the pleasure of the occasion. 
Public buildings were closed for business, but hospitably 
open to all visitors. It was distinctively a Medford jubilee. 
The orator, the poet, the vocalists, the various speakers, 
even the inanimate objects in the loan exhibitions were 
selected because they had been or were connected with 
the life of the town. No one who attended any of the 
public exercises or assisted in family reunions failed to 
realize the tie of brotherhood which binds us all together, 
or to thank God for the fathers and mothers who seemed 
to speak to us, bidding us to guard sacredly the honor 
of our old town as they had cherished it in the years 
gone by. 



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